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Uulce University 

Karc DooKi 


I ^"KJWilWlimm 















£Dt«r«d aooording to Act of CongiCBt in tlie Year 1862 . 
In the Cl«rk*B Oflic* ol the District Court of the Confederate Stateu, for the Eastern 
District of North Carolina. 

JL M. 90aMAM. PRUraVtL 



No subject is more difficult to the mind of the Pupil, than that 
of Composition ; and ycf, strange as it may seem, he is usually ex- 
pected to compose without any assistance whatever from books.— 
Teachers have sometimes objected to the use of works on Composi- 
tion, lest the mind of the pupil should be cramped, or the style should 
become artificial, but these are groundless objections. Every stu- 
dent's style is compelled to be more or less artificial in acquirement 
and yet it may be perfectly natural in its dis2)osition. 

To acquire a love of the subject, is a great point gained in the ac- 
quisition of any science. This work is designed to make the art of 
composing both easy and agreeable. 

As soon as the student can read intelligibly, he may commence 
the study of jthis Book. The exercises found, will naturally lead 
him to the habit of writing, and gradually draw out the mind to the 
practice of thinking, and finally to that of independent composition. 

This Book if studied before English (grammar will greatly aid the 
pupd in the acquisition of that science, while the more advanced stu- 
dent may find it altogether prt)fitable. 

In the hope that it may be useful to the young of our great rising 
Confederacy, ihe work is respectfully offered to the public. 













Letters, Vcvcls, Conso- 
nants, Syllables. 9. 
Words, Articles. 10. 
Nouns,. 12. 
Pronojns. 13. 
Adjectives, 15. 
Verbs, IG. 
Adverbs, 17. 
Exercise on Adverbs, 19. 

A Review, 








XV. The Subject 28. 

XVI. Exercise, ' 81, 

XVII. The Object — Transi- 
tive & Intransitive Verbs, 82. 

XVIII. Personal, Relative, Irf- 

terogative and Adjec 
tive Pronouns, 35. 

XIX. The Relative Pronoun 

and Relative Clause, 83 

XX. Participles — Participial 

Clauses, 80. 

XXI. A Review, 41. 
XX[I. Sentence's, Phrhses, 

Clauses, Apposition, 43 
X'XIII. Composition, 40. 

XXIV. Description, 48, 



r.\G E.- 





*' 9. 






" 10. 






'' 11. 






" 12. 

Ice, , 





*• 13. 




Chcsnuts,^ • 


" 14. 






" ]5. 




Apple Trcor., 


'' 10. 









1. Pcriofl, Interrogation 
Point, Exclamation Point, 77 

2. Colon. and Semicolon, 79 
8. Comma, 80 

4. Exercise in Punctuation, 82 

5. Dash, Paienthcsi.s, Brack- 

ets, 84 

C. Other Marks usea in Wri - 
ting, 86 

7. Exercise in Punctuation, 87 

8. Exercise in Punctuation, 88 

9. Rules for the use of Capi- 

tals, . 90 

10. A Review, 92 

11. A Review, 93 




^0. 1. 

Autumn Leaves, 

95 No. 8. 

A Pic- Nic, 


♦• 2. 


97 " 9. 

A Sleigh Ride, 


" 8. 

Wild- Flowers, 

99 " 10. 

A Menagerie, 


" 4. 


101 •' 11. 

A Fair, 


" 5. 

Water- Lilies, 

102 " 12. 



" C. 


104 "■ 13. 

Fourth of July, 


♦• 7. 

' Blind Man's Buff, 

lOG " 14. 







A MouTitain, 

121 No. 


A ]Jrr)f)k, 

12a " 7. 


A Watc'inill, 

125 *' 8. 


A Spring, 

127 " 9 


A M< onlight 



12n " 10. 


A Thunder Storm, 130 

A Snow Storm, 132 

An Aurora Boreal is, 134 

A Sunrise, 130 

A Sunset. 1^8 





What is a litter? 

A letter represents a sound. 

How nan J letters are uied in the Enflish Language? 

Repeat them. 

A, b, Cy d, e, /, g, h, i, Jy Jc, I, m, n, o, p, q, r, «, t, m, v, 

What are the letteri called, when taken all together? 

' Thi Alphabet. 

How are these letters claasified ? 

Into two distinct •lassei. 
What are these classes called ? 

Vowelft and consonants. 

Whick represent the heavier tones ? 

Tkt Tonics — a, t, i, o, u, and w and j, not toMinencinf 
a syllable. 

What are Tonic sounds ? 

Soundi made with tke mouth op«n and the tongue not 

Which letters represent the next heavier sounds ? 

Tke Subtonics — c, d, g, j, 1, m, ng, r, v, w, y, i, wh, th, 
and w and y btginning a syllable. 

What are Suh-Tonic sounds ? 

Sounds made farther down th« throat, and lefs diftinol 
than the T«nic. 


Which letters represent the wpirations, or breathings? 
The At-Tonlcs, f, h, ft, p, q, s, t, th. 
What are At-Tonic sounds? 

Sounds without any tone, simply breathings. 
Of how mafiy sounds is the word goodneas composed ? 
Two, good and nesi. . 

What are scpall words, when used to compose larger ones, called ? 
What is a syllable? 

One of the natural divisions of a word. 
How many syllables does a wotd generally have? 
One for each distinct vowel sound ; el-e-phant. 
Are all words of more than one syllabic really compound words' 
They are. 

When is a syllable compeund? 

When it is composed of more than one letter, as, a-word, 
What do letters compose ? 

What do syllables compose ? 

What do words compose ? 
Members or dauses. 
What do members compose ? 

What do sentences compose? 



How do you convey your thoughts ? 
By Words. 

What does a word indicate when spoken ? 
An Idea. 


Through whit iTwedium does it convey an idea to the minJ ? 
The ear. 

What does a word indicate when written ^ 
An Idea. 

Through what medium ? 
The eye. 

Note. We hear spoken words, and sec those which are written. 
How are words divided ? 

Into parts of speech. 

Why are they thus divided ? 

For convenience. 

How many parts of speech and what are ttity called ?» 

Nina: viz., Article, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, 
Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition, and Interjection. 

Which is the simplest part of speech ? 

The Article. 

What is an Article? 

An Article is a word placed before another word to 
limit its meaning. 

How many Articles are there ? , 

Two ; A and The. 

When we say the man, what do we mean ? 

Some particular rnan. / 

When we say a man, what is meant? 

Any man. 

What is the called? 

A definite Article. 
Why? . 

Because it points, out some person or thing definitely. 

What is a called ? 

An indefinite Article. 

^V^hy ? 

Because it points out some person or thing -in defi nit ely . ^ 

Why is 71 used after a frequently, as a?i enemy ? 

To prevent two tonic sounds from coming together. 


"Where ie a uied ? 

A is need before words commencing with sub-tonic 
sounds, as, % cat, a goat, m man, a unit, a eulogy. 
Where is n uied after the a f 

Before words commencing with a tonic sound; as, an 
enemy, an hour. 



What is the next part of speech in order ? 
The Noun. 

Wkat are the names of all persons and things ? 

What is North Carolina? 
A Noun.- 

How do you define a Noun ? 

A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing ; as, 
John, Raleigh, Btok. 

How many classes of nouns are there ? 
Two ; Common and Proper. 
What is a conmon noun ? 

A common noun is a common name ; as, towriy city^ tree, 

Define a Proper noun. 

A Proper noun is a proper or particular name ; as, 
Ohtirles Fisher, Newhern, Yadkin, 

How do proper nouns always commence? 

With a capital letter. 

Is Tennessee a common or proper noun ? 

A Proper noun, because it is a particular name. 

What kind of a noun is State f 

A common noun, because it is a name giveti to all States. 



Fill up the following sentences by inserting in plate of the dash 
) iv^ common or a proper noun, as may be needed. 

ExAXPLi. is planted in April. » 

FiLLBD. CotUn is planted in April. « 

1. \ — is a Confederate State. 

2. Gen. reduced Fort Sumter. 

3. South Carolina is the greatest country in the Confede- 
rate States. 

4. Louisiana raises more than any other State in tho Con- 

5. The mountains of Nor£h Carolina are 9, great of reiort 

for and pleasure. 

6. The Sea are pleasant and healthy. 

7. Nearly all the of America is raised in and — . 



What is the word Pronoun composed of? 

Pro, which means for, and noun, a name. 

In the sentence, '* Willis/m learns hit Utioriy^^ what does his stand 
for ? ^ 

The Name William. 
Could we dispense with the word his f 
Yes; by saying William learns Willian^'s lesson 
Then why do we use the word his? 

Because it is shorter than the noun William, and an- 
swers the same purpose. 
What do we call all words standing for nouns ? 

Pronouns. , 

Define a Pronoun. 

Pronouns are used instead of nouns, ^ 

Are they always used instead of nouns? 

No ; sometimes they only relate to nouns, and some- # 
times merely point them out. 

it FlKSl litJUU IN COM! 031ilu:>. 

Mention the Pronouns that stand for persons and things 

J, thoUy he, sJie, it. 
AVhat these called ? 

Personal Pronouns. 
Mention those relating to nouns. 

Who, which, that, and what. 
Giro an example. 

JTe is the man, who captured the flag. 
Mention the pronouns that simply 2^oint out nouns; 

This, that, any, one, all, such, soone, both, another, none, 
^ach, every, either, neither. 
Give an example. 

That man is sober ; both boys were to blame. 
What are these c-alled ? * ' - 

Adjective pronouns. 

You should take sullicicnt notice of these pronouns to know thtni 
wherever you see thcni, since they arc used very often in all books. 


Ill the following sentences insert 2>ro?wuns to fill the dashes. 

ExAMPLB. The hail has broken corn. 

FiLLRi). The hail has broken mp corn. 

I. Abraham Lincoln led people into war. 

2. I will obey parents. 

'.i. The Soutb is nalire land. 

4. Gire ni« «— pencil. 1 will tctnrn . 

5. People love the land of birth. 

0. Are g^'ino l"^ learn lesson ? 

7. I gave the beggar hat, aiul thanked me very po- 

8. Jefferson Davis dcfendeil Country bravel^'jland deserves 

great applr.u><e for patrioti.'-ni. 

9. Napoleon desired to render name immortal by conquer- 
ing Emiiires and extending • — rifle over all the world. 

10. The cliniale of country is sojl and buhiiy ; no 

land is more hi^^hly favoreil. 

II. Those people live in North Carolina hhealthy alech 

and delightlul climate. 

12.. \Vabhington, in • youlh,- and thiougliont =■ whole 

life, adhered strictly \^) the Ijulh, and Ihu.s si;L an cxiiiiiplc, which 
ought to follow. 

IIJ. The works of creation invite^ to conttlnplat« the great. 

ness and goodness of Creator. 

iluil EjuK IN ^JUMi'Obn■lU^'. 15' 

14. If think never do wronp; deceive , 

for almost every moment are guilty of sin. 

15. General Andrew Jackson, at the battle of New Orleans^ showed 

'— valor, by bravely commanding; own men, and entirely 

routing of the enemy, and killing many of on the field. 



What is the next pait of speech called? 

The Adjective. * ' 

In the sentence, ^''Apple's are good fntii,^^ which word is a noun? 
Fruit is a noun, Lccausc it is a name. 
Which word describes fruit? 
„ Gopd. 
What pafrt of speech is good? 

An Adjective. 

An Adjective is a word used to describe 05 limit a noun or pronoun 
Oivc one or two examples. 

A bad boj. A larc/e tree. A great ox. Samuel is 

In the examples given, which words arc adjectives? 
Brxd^ large, r/reat, and duohcdient. 
What other kind of adjectives do we have ? 


Give a few examples. 

Three, seven, eight, third, seventh, eighth. 
What do thes^ words express?. 

Number. All numeral adjectives express www^t^r. 



Complete the following sentences by inserting an adjective in 
place of each dayh. Do not use the same adjective more than once. 

tiXAMtLE. A day. Putting in an adjective, a rainy day; 

n vlcam-iif, day -^ nn u/ijor/unjlc day. 

1. In New England it is very. -^ during winter, and 

deaths occur from, the ritrors of the climate. 


2. Winter in the West Indies is and the climate is delight- 

•ful for persons. 

3. Columbus was the man that crossed the Ocean. 

lie landed on one of the West Indie islands, and performed 

worship to the • Creator. 

4. The whale is a animal ; he often do«s daaage 

^ith a stroke of his tail. 

5. Wc lire in a mansion, which has chimneys. 

6. In the woods wc may flowers ; the rose, th« 

dandelion, and the lilly. 

7^ J3e ft boy while at school, and you may make a 

fnaa when you arc old. 

8. John has studied the lesson and deserves a grade, 

9. Remember to be to your teachers and to youir 


10. William has a book, a sJate, and a — ^ uni^ 




What is the fifth part of speech called ? 

The Verb. 

In tke sentence " Sarah reads LatiHy^ which word tells what Sa- 
rah d«cs ? 


In the ficnlence, *' Mary sleeps," which word tells us the state 
Mary is in ? 

What do we call reads and sleeps ? 

What is a verb? 

A verb is a word that expresses action, or a state of 
being. ^ 

In the sentence " William m indnstrious^^^ what part of speech is. 
William, and why ? What is is, and why ? What is good^ and why ? 

Where a dash occurs insert a verb that will complete the sense. 
Example. The trees' l;ir^ roots, so as to the win- 
ter winds. 


CoMPLETBD. The tre«s have large roots so as to resist the winter 

1. In tutumn the firmer his harrest, and it away 

in barns. The leares from the trees, and the wind 

through the branches. 

2. WiMit«ver y«u to do, it quickly ; nerer 

(till to-morrow what to. day. 

3. Let ui early, and much work. 

4. Cows milk, which we into butter and cheese. 

5. Richard .to th« concert, and Dixie's Land sung. 

6. A farmer a snake, almost froEen to death, under a hedge ; 

moved with compassion, he it to his house, and it 

snoar the fire. No sooner did the heat to revive it, than the 

«nak« upon his wife, ©ns of his childreii, and 

the whole family ink* terror and confusion. '* Un^ratef ul wretch !" 

the farmer; "I find it useless to favors on the 

undeservting." With these words ho a hatchet, and 

the snake into pieces. 

7. Indian tribes in the forest. They sometimes -^ the 

white ma© as ho • • on kis journey, and goods From him. 

8. The horse a noblo animal. Ho can , or , 

and at the same time a man on his back, or a wagon 

behind hits. 




What is the sixth part of speech called ? 

The Adverb. 
What is the moaning of the word Adverb ? 

Joined to a verb. 
Why are adverbs joiued to verbs ? 

To modify them. 

In the sentence *^ Beauregard fought hraoehj,^^ what word tells 
liow ke fought ? 


Then Irately is joined to, or modifies what word ? 

The verb fought. 

What part of speech, then, is Ivazely^ 

An Adverb. 


Are adverbs ever joined to any other words besides verbs ? 

Yes; adverbs modify verbs, participles, adjectives, an J 

other adverbs. 

In the sentence, '* Beauregard /ought very Ircfvely,^^ what word 
tells how bravely Beauregard fought ? 


Thea tery is joined to hravdy ; what part of speech is bravely f 

An Adverb. * 

Then since very is joined to the adverb bravely, what part of speech 
is it?- . ^ 

An Adverb. ? 

In the sentence, '■'■John is very diligent,''^ to.wliat is very joined 

To the adjective diligent. 
What part of speech is it, then ? 

An adverb. 
^Yhat is an adverb ? 

An Adverb is a word used to modify verbs, adjectives, 
and other adverbs. 

Select the advcrbg in the following sentences, and tell what words 
they modify. 

1. James talks sensibly. 

2. He studies very hard, and stands well in bis class. 

3. I like him very niucli. 

Mention some of the principal classes of adveii)s. 
, 1. Adverb* of manwer, whicli end for the most part in ly ; as 
swiftly, boldly, quickly, slowly, handsomely, &.-,. 

2t. Adverbs of tim(^; as, now, then, yc:5tcrday, to-day, to-morrow, 
immediately, often, always, never, ever, again, soon, seldom, .hitherto, 

3. Adverbs tf place; as, here; there, hither, thither, whither, 
hence, thence, where, and its compounds nowhere, elsewhere, any- 
where, «fec. 

4. Adverbs of quaatity ; as, much, little, cnouf^h, &c. 

5. Adverbs of degree ; as, very, almost, ne^irly, &<:. 

What other words express m inner and are liable to be confounded 
with adverbs of manner V 


What is the differenf^o be' ween them ? 

An adjective is a word used to describe a noun ; an ad- 
verb, to describe or modify a verb, an adjective, or anoth- 
' er adverb. 


1 How can you tell thetn apart ? 

When a word expressing manner is joined to a noun or 
pronoun, it is an adjective; when it is joined to a verb, 
adjective, or adverb, it is an adverb. 


Make a list, in order, of the adjectives that occur in the followiHg 

Make a separate list •( the adverbs, in order. 

1. The early hours oC sleep are the most sweet and refreshing. 

2. The Bedouin Arabi are, for the most part, small, meagre, and 

3. Quicksilver ig ft valuable mettl ; it has hitherto been imported 
chiefly from Spain," Germany, and Peru. 

4. i will assist you most cheerfully if you will be careful and at- 

5. Those who are virtuous may not' always be happy here, but 
they will certainly receive their reward kereafter. 

6. Large armies generally march slowly. 

7. tfe who forms conclusions too quickly,- often forms them incor- 

8. If you are attentive you will learn grammar very fast. 

9. The Portugese were once the most enterprising navigators of 
Europe ; they founded colonies in many parts of the world, before 
totally ■unkno\\ n. 

10. I have heard better singing to-day than I ever heard before. 
81. 11. He who tries hard, seldom fails to succeed. 



' Where a dash occurs insert an adverb that will complete the sense. 

Example. I labored . 

Completed. I labored ffiithfully. 

1. Josephine sings , and dances 

The house is — — tall, and is "built. 

3. We are going to the grave. 

■1. Tsaw him ; ho was running down the hill side. 

5. Listen , and you will be able to understand the 

subject. . • ~ 

6. General Stuart — started in pursuit; he — ^ overtook 

the encrax, led on the attack in person, and gained a complete 



7. Tim* pa'^t — returns ; improve the' moments, iherefort, t» 

as you can. 

8. The horse trotted . John ate . 

0. The lion roars . The kitten plays . 

10. The rain b«gan to fall , and they were wet. 

11. The poor boy was hurt 

12. This room will hold twenty persons very . 

13. He gave the poor man his purse. 

14. When ar« you goine: ? . 

16. Do you 8»e him ? Yes he is . 



What is the seventh part of speech called ? 

The Conjunction. 

When I say " Mary learns her lesson," what is the expressioni 
called ? 

A sentence. 

What is a sentence ? 

Such an assemblage of words as makes complete senes.. 

Would *' Kate to the fait\^^ be a sentence ? 

No; because it would not make complete sense. 

Make a cotnpltt« sentence •f it. 

*' Kate has gone to the fair." 

In the aentance ^^Jamet got up early and went to marJcet" how 
many parta ara there, an4 what are they ? 

Two ; "James got up early " is one, "went to market'*' 
is the other. 
What are Buah parts of a sentence called ? 

What word connecta tha two clauses in the above sentence ? 


What dacs the word conjunction mean ? 

A connecting together. ' 

What, then, may an<2, and all such words ae conneet ckiuses, b» 

Conjunctions, ^ 


Do conjunctions ever connect any thing else besides clauses ? 
Yes ; conjunctions connect words also. 
Give me a sentence in which there is a conjunction cwnecting 

''Mary turned and wept^ here the conjunction and 
connects the verbs turned and wept. 
Give me another. 

'^aeorge and Heyiry have gone to Raleigh T here the 
conjunction and connects the nouns aeorge and Henry. 
Now tell me, what is a conjunction ? 

A conjunction is a word used to connect other words 
and clauses. 

Mention some of the principal conjunctions. , 


And, because, if, that, or, nor, eithei', neither, but, lest, 
notwithstanding, therefore, though, unless, than, as. 

What is a sentence ? 
What is a clause ? 
What is a conjunction ? 

Where a dash occurs, insert a coajunction that will compUte the 

sense. , , . 

Example. He went to the ball, he was ordered to remam. 

Completed. He went to the ball, alihough he was ordered to re- 

1. Either you must go, I. John Mary are hr re. 

2. Neither the wagon, tl^e carriage has arnvtd. 

3. We will not go fishing, it rains. 

4. Hannibal took an oath -^ he would conquer the Romans. 

5. He did not get a premium, he did not deserve it 

6. Mary has excellent parents, she is a bad girl. 

T. Do not buy the book you can get it for a shilling. 

8. I like to see a hard shower, 1 nev^ walk out m oae. 



9. My father mother are going to Raleigh to mort'ow M 

be clear. 

10. Let those who stand, beware they fall. 

] 1 . The happy often forget others are miserable. 

12. General Lee defeated the Yankees, his army was much 

SQialler ^ theirs. 

13. None will deny the hawk flies more swiftly the pi- 

14. you do your duty you will not be blamed. 

15. I saw my cousin I was turning the corner. 


What is the eighth part of speech called? 
The Preposition. 

In the sentence, " William walked to Charleston^'''' what word 
shows the relation between William\s iralJcin^ and Charleston? . 


How is this word to placed ? 

i3efore the noun Charleston. 

What does the word preposition mean ? 

A placing before. 

What then may we call to^ and all similar words? 


What is a Preposition? 

A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or pro- 
noun, to show the relation between it, and some other 
word or words in the sentence. 




Mention the principal prepositions.* 











in c 








instead of 


according to 

beyond . 













out of, 



during . 








Wherever a dash occurs, insert a preposition that will complete 
the sense. 

Example. Xothing can be accomplished an effort. 

Completed. Nothing can be accomplished icithout^n effort. 

1. In Greenland, the people live wretched huts. 

2. Steamboats r^in — — Vicksburg Memphis. 

3. the summer, the cattle love to lie shady trees. 

• 4. The camel has a hump ■ his back. 

5. • patience and perseverance you may attain the highest sta- 
tion seciety. 

6. He gave the book me, apd I placed it the table. 

7. You must perform examples the rule. 

8. It is dark* sunset. 

9. She lives Piedmont, twenty -five miles Salem. 

10. A large rock hangs the path. 

11. The sailor likes to get port. 

12. Always keep virtue and duty your eyes. 

13. I live my father! 

14. A farmer was bitten — — a snake, while he was standing • 

the weedvS. 

\ 15. The ferry-lBoat will take us the river. 

•^•TlKj pupil <jiiy:hl to commit tliiblist to memory. 



What is the ninth and last part of speech ? 

The Interjection. 

In the sentence '^ Alas! I am undone P'' what word is thrown Id 
to express the sorrow of the spfeaker ? 

Alaa ! 

What does the word interjection mean? 

A throwing in. 

What, then, may alas ! and similar w©rds ba- called ? 


What is an Interjection ? 

An Interjection is a word used to express some suddea 
feeling of the speaker. 

What are the principal ftelings which are expreraed ¥y inteijeo- 
tions ? 

Sorrow, triumph, disgust, wonder • there are also in- 
terjections of calling, of attention, of saluting, of taking 

Mention the principal interjections of sorrow.* 

Oh ! ah ! alas ! alack ! 

Mention these expressing triumph. 

Hurrah ! huzza ! bravo ! aha ! 

Mention those expressing disgust. 

Indeed! fudge! pshaw! tush! away ! .begone ! 

Mention those expressing wonder. 

Indeed ! strange ! what ! 


Mention those of calling. 

Hallo! ho! 
Mention those of atttntion. 

Behold ! lo ! hark ! listen ! see ! hush ! hist ! 
Mention those of saluting. 

! (0 is always used with a pronoun, or the name of 
an object addressed ; as, thou ! James !) welcome ! 
hail ! 

Mention those of taking leave. 

Adieu ! farewell ! good b'ye ! 

What mark is that ( ! ) which you see placed after ^ach of tke above 
interjection^ ? * 

An Exclamation Point. 

When jou write an intorj«ctioa, what must y«ii place'after it? 

An exclamation point. 

In the exercise that follows, how will you know which of the aboye 
interjections to insert in place of the dash ? 

1 will read the whole sentence, and put in an interjec- 
tion that is appropriate; thus, if the. sentence express 
sorrow ^ I will insert an interjection of sorrow ; if wonder^ 
I will insert one of wonder,* kc. 


Where a dash occurs, insert a suitable interjection. 

E3:ample. ! the victory is ours I 

.Completed. J?wrraA/ the. victory is ours 1 

1. ! I am surprised at this. 

2. My house is on fire ; 1 I am undone. 

8- 1 what strange figure is this that is approaching ? 

^' ! my friend ; I am glad to see you. 

^' ! the cannon are booming ; the battle has begun. 


6.. ! dif.hoiif- L wretoli ; I despise thee! ■ 

7. ! our friend ha'^ ronquered. 

H, 1 stranger; will you tell a Iravollor where he i? ? 

9. ! no one can tell how much the j^oor suffer. 

10. ! Is it thus you behave? 

]1. T hope you may have a pleasant journey. ! 

12. ! what noise was that ? 

13. ! poor fellow I I am sorry for him. 

14. ! John, where are you going? 

15. Who is that? ! ho is descending the hill. 

1%. ! is it really so! impossible! 

17. ! thou blessed sun, that spreadest gladness over the earth. 

18. ! I am at the head of my class. 


[The pupil has answorod all the questions given below, ns tbfly occurred 
\u the preceding lessons; but as ho mij' have foVgotton some of them, he 
must look back for the answers, and loarn them carefully.] 

What ^8 a letter? 

^\'hat is a vowel? Name the vowpIs. 

What is a consonant? Name the consonants. 

What two letterj are somoiimep vowels, and at other times consonants? 

*'«'hen are they vowels, and when consonants? 

Whnt is a syllable ? ,, 

^''b&t is a word ? 

ll'iw many parts of fpeecb are there? Mention tliem. 

What is an article? Mention the articles. , 

A" hat is a noun 1 Give an exannplo. 

Iluw many kinds of nouns are there? What is a proper noun? What is 
s romrnon noun ? 

Whnt is a pronoun? Mention the principal pronouns. 

What is an adjective ? Give an example. 

What is a verb ? Give an example. 

What is an adverb? Give an example. Mention the different Id'ndfl of 
adverbfj, and give an example of each. 

V^bai is a ientence '-' * 

What are distinct members or parts of sentences called? 
"What is a conjunction? Mention some of the principal conjimctiona. 
Wliat is a prepofiition ? Mention some of the principal prepositions. 
What is au interjection? What are the principal classes of interjections? 
Meotion on^c of ^ach class. 



In thifl lesson and the next, the pupil, wherever a blank occurs, must insert 
whatever part of speech is reqiaired to complete the sopse. Following th« 
spelling sad puactuation of the book. 


Martins a kind of swallows. Tliey feed .fJies, , and 

other insects, ami skim swiftly therugh ' air, in pursuit of their 
proy. In the morning are up by day-break, and twitter about 

your window, while are asleep bed. They a e harm- 

less, and, as people do not molest them, they . build their 
in towns villages. They are small birds, but a great deal. 

I will a couple of stories, illustrating their sagacity* 

A pair of martins, who- their nest in a porch, had some 

young ones; and happened that one of them, in to climb 

the side, fell out, and striking the st«nes, was killed. 

The old , seeing this accident^ went and strong pieces of 

straw, and fastened them mud all around the , i.i order to 

Iceep the fro'ixi meeting a similar 

Here is ^mother about them. AVhile a martin was absent from 

bis nest, one day, a cock-sparrow took possession it ; 

when the owner and to enter, he put out bill, and com- 

menced pecking at him. The martin, not • pleased with this in- 
vasion of his , flew away, and a number of his companions. 
They aK came the nest, with bits of clay in their , with 
which plastered up the to the nest; so the sparrow, 
unable to foo^J and air, died. 



The Dukb and the Galley- Slaves. 

TDbe King of Spain once ga?e to Duke of Ossuna to re- 
lease such of the galiey-siaves as might think- proper. The 
DxlkQ^ as he among the slaves who were at the oars, asked 
thera in succession of what crime they had guilty. They all 
pnijcsted innocence, and him that they had been unjustly 
On€ attributed his condemnation to the of an enemy, another 
to tie of his judge. At last, however, he one who admit- 
ted that, to save his from starving, he had robbed a man of , 
on highway. The Duke, he heard this, gave him a sfroke 
the back his band, and said, "Get you gon^ you rogue, 
from the of honest men." So who confessed fault was. 
released, while the , for their want of were compelled to 
at their labors. 

fPhus we see we are not likely to, iose any thing; by a. ad;- 

nnkssion of faultF, 



"When I Fay, " Charles walks'' who is it that I Bpeak about? 

' In the eeDtdncfif **The oak Jias been cut down," what is it that I epeak: 

The oak. * 

What do we call Charles, oak, and all vTorda respecting whioh «,n actioa. 
or state 18 affirmed? 



What is the sabjeot of a verb ? 

The subject of a verb is that respecting which the action or 
«tate expressed by the verb is affirmed. 
How may you always find the subject of a verb f 

Put the word toho or what before the verb, and the answer to 
the <^uestion will be the subject. 

Give me an example. In the sentence, "John went to market,'^ what is 
the subject? 

Put wAo before the verb, and the answer to the question will 
be the subject; thus, " Who went to market?" Answer, John. 
Johfij therefore, is the subject. 

In the sentence, " Vwtue is a source of happiness," find the subject in the 
a me manner as above. 

Put toJiat before the verb; "PTAa/is a source of happiness?' 
Answer, Virtue. Virtue is the subject. 

In the same manner select the subjects in the following sentences : 
Bees make honey. ' Virginia is a large state. 
Quarrels are unpleasant. Charles was late at school. 
The flute makes fine music. We are tired of walking. 
The machine was invented in England. You are wrong, 
ixratitu^e is a noble feeling. Science enlarges the mind. 
They are very sick. We were disappointed. 

In the Ia«t two sentences, what are the subjects? 

They and we. 

What part of speech are they and we ? , 


May pronouns, then, be subjects of a verb ? 

They may. 

In the sentence, " To steal is base/* find the subject as above. 

Pat what before the verb; " What is base ! Answer, to steal- 
To steal \s the subject. 

Whaticart of speech is steal ? '■ 

A verb, because it expresses action. ' . . 

When a verb has to before it, we say it is in the infinitive inood; may a 
verb In the ipfiniitive mood, then, be the subject of another verb ? 

It <may. 


•What mood is a verb in, when it has to bofore it? 

A verb is in the infinitive mood when it has to before it. 

How may we know when a verb is in the infinitive mood ? 

By seeing whether it has to before it. 

Is to play in the in^aitive mood ? to jump ? to walk ? Mention six more 
verbs in the infinitive mood. 

May a verb in the iofinitivo mood be the subject of another verb ? 

It may. 

Qive me several examples, and mention the subject. 

To lie is dishonorable : here, to lie is the subject. To travel is 
pleasant : to t^nvel is tl>e subject. 

Make throe short sentences of your own,, like the above, in which a verb- 
in the infinitive mood will be the subject of another verb, and mention the 
subject in each sentence. ' 

In the sentence, " Whether w c shall go to Columbia i» uncertain," find the 
subject in the manner described above. . 

Put what before the verb : " What is uncertain ? Answer, 
whether we shall go to Columbia. These words, therefore, wheth- 
er we shall go to Columbia; are the subject. 

These words form part of a sentence; may, then, part of a sentence^be 
the subject of a verb? 
It may. 
Find, us above, the subjects in the following sentences ; 

1. To fall froiji the top of a church steeple, is certain death. 

2. For a weak nution to provoke a strong one, is bad policy. 

S That even the best men commit sin, is proved by daily experi- 

Now, lot us see, what have wo found that a verb may havo for its subject? 

A verb may have for its subject, 

I. A noun ; as, John walks ; • 

II. A pronoun; &s, t hcg are gone ; 
. HIT A verb in the infinitive niood; as, to dig is hard work ; 
IV. Part of a sentence ; as, doing one's duty secures haj^pl- 

Select the subject in each of the sentences just given aa examples. 



Select and write out the subject in each of the following sentences; 
K" you are in any doubt, put who or ichat before the verb, as direct- 
ed above. 

Example. Working in quicksilver mines is very injurious to the 

Subject. Working in quicksilver mines. 

1. We should improve our time. 

2. Digging potatoes is hard work. 

3. To reveal a fii end's secrets is dishonorable. 

4. Cicero was a celebrated orator. 

5 Wealth does net always pi;ocure esteem. 

6. Temperance and exercise preserve health. 

7. Time and tide wait for no man. 

8. For an ignorant person to profess to teach pliilosophy, only 
exposes him to ridicule. 

9, Whether it will rain is uncertain. 

10. John and I will start in the morninT. 

11. Where are the women going ? 

12. To be wise in his own eyes, is the mark of a fool. 


Where a blank' occurs, insert a subject, either a noun, a pronoun, 
or a verb in the infinitive mode, or part of a sentence, as may be re 
quired to complete the sense. • 

Example. and lead to wealth. 

Completed. Industry and frugality lead to wealth. 

1. and gnaw holes in the floor. 

2. • , ,and _, are useti for drawing loadp. 

3. * is dishonorable. 

4. am going to school. 

5. is a useful study. 

♦Here the pupil must insert a verb in the infinitive mode or a part of a sentence. , 



6. Has the arrived ? 

7. attends carefully to his lessons. 
8» Have written your exercise ? 

9. and are*niade from milk. 

10. * is a proof of dishonesty. 

11. * is the practice of a bad boy. 

12. * is unpleasant work. 

13. * is the business of the b:iker. 

14. marched by with a fine band of music. 



In the aentOQC?, " Charles killed a fly," what word exprewes the object 
that receives tb« action ex pressed by the verb f 

The word Jly. 

"What do we call fly, in this sentence? 

JFhj is the OBJ ect of the verb killed. 

In the sentence, " Children love milk t" what is the object of the verb loven 


What is the object of a verb ? 

The object of a verb is that which receives tbe action express-. 
ed by the verb. 

What is the cbjoot in each of the following sentences? 

Bees make honey. Birds; build nesfs, 

Mary kindled the fire. I have broken my knife. 

My mother loves me. John's father scolded him. 

In the last two sentences what are the objects? 

Me and him. 

What part of speech are me and 7«m? 

May a pronoun, then, be the object of a verb? ^ 

It Mav. 

*Here the pupil must insert a verb in the infinitive mode or a part of a eevtence. 


Co tho sentdnoe, " John sleeps," is there any object? 
There is not. 

Does tb« rerb sleep admit ao object after it ? 
It does not. 

Into bow many classes, tben, may verbs be divided ? 
Into two classes ; 

I. Transitive verbs, or verbs that express an act that may 

be done to an object. 


II. Intransitive verbs, or verbs that do not express an act 
that may be doue to an object. 

Art verbs that express simply a state of being, transitive or intraof itiv* f 

Verbs that express a state of being are intransitive. 


Because they do not express any action at all. 

Is strike transitive or intransitive, and why / 

Strike is a transitive verb, because it admits an object after it 
Thus we may say, *' I strike a man ;" in this sentence, man would 
be the object, and hence we find that strike is transitive. 

Ii live a transitive or intransitive verb ? 

Live is an intransitive verb, because it expresses simply a state 
of being, and does not admit an object after it. 

Is sleep transitive or intransitive ? jump? hurt? eat? dream ? love? tee? 
be? walk? run? 

May any other part of speech besides a verb, have an object f 
Yes ; a preposition may have an object. 

In the sentence, "John is lying on the grass," what is the objeet of tht 

preposition on? 

Grass. . 

Make three short sentences similar to the one last given, in which there 
will be a preposition and its object. 

How may you always find the objeet of a verb, or preposition f 


By putting what or whom after it; the answer to tbe question 
will be tbe object. , 

Oire me an example. Toll me tbe object of tbe verb and preposition in 
thi< tenteDco, " The butcher killed a pig with a knife." 

Pat w>Aa< after the verb — "The butcher killed wltat?^^ An** 
•wer, a pij j pif/ is the object of the verb killed. Put what Af- 
ter the preposition — "With ivhat?" Answer, a /:w//V ; knife \a 
the object of the preposition with. 


Complete the /ollowing sentences by inserting an object where a 
blank occurs.; either a noun or pronoun, as the sense may require. 

1. In Egypt the Nile overflows the , and renders the fer- 


2. Boys can buy with their money. 

3. I have found in the street a and a 

4. A man by honesty and will always gain the of his 
companions. , 

5. llenry's father bought him a for a Christmas 

6. "When danger is nigh, a hen gathers her under her 

7. The fisherman is preparing to go to in a 

8. In building houses, they use *, , and 

9. The mice have gnawed in this old 

10. The American Indians are very skilful with the bo^^ and ar- 
row ; they can hit a very small at a great . With these 
weapons they often kill , , and other wild 

11. With your spare purcha«.e books; read , profit by 
, and take good care of 

12. My brother loves me, and I love 

18. After we die, the grave will contain ; but our friends will 

remember , and shed on account of our departure. 

14. Birds gather for their young, and teach how to fly. 

15. The milk of the cow furnishes us and 

16. In church we see many , but should listen to the 



What is a pronoun ; (See Lesson IV., if you do not remember.) 

How many different classes of pronouns are there, and what are th«if 
names 1 - 

There are four classes of pronouns— Personal, Relative, Inter- 
rogative, and Adjective. _ . 

In th« aentence, " J am tired," for what does the pronoun / stand ? ^ 

For the name of the person sj^caking. 

"What kind of a pronoun is / ? 

A personal pronoun. 

What is a personal pronoun ? 

A personal pronoun is a word, which, being used in a sentence 
without the noun for which it stands, merely represents it, with- 
out introducing any additional idea respecting it. 

Mention the personal pronouns. 

The personal pronouns are as follows : /, my, mine, me, wc, 
our, ours, us, thou, thy, thine, thee, you, your, yours, he, his, him, 
she, her, hers, it, its, they, their, theirs, them. 

I-n the sentence, " The Romans, who were nktorious, lost, only fifty men; 
to what word does the pronoun who relate; or, in other words, who are said 
to hate .been victorious? ' 



Then,' ilnce the pronoun who relates to Romans, what kind of a pronoun 
shall we call it ? * . 

A relative pronoun. • : ' 

36 urst booe ik composition. 

What is a relative pronoun f 

A relati?e proaoaa is a word that relates to a douq or pronoan 
before it. 

\ybat is this noan or pronouD going before, to whioh the relative relate*^ 
called ? 

The antecedent. 

In the sentcDoe, " The boy toho is idle loill be unhappt/f ' what is the rel»« 
live, and what its antecedent ? 

Who is the relative, and hoy is its antecedent. 
Mention the relative pronouns. 

The relative pronoans are whoy whose, whom, which, that 
Is who always a relative pronoan ? 

No ; sometimes it does not relate to an antecedent, but is useJ 
to aak a question, as, " Who is there P^ 
What kind of a pronoun is it then called ? 
An interrogative pronoun. , 

What is an interrogative pronoan ? 

An interrogative pronoun is one that is u&ed to aak a question. 
Mention the interrogative pronouns ? 

The interrogative pronouns are who, whose, whom, which and 

What mark always follows a sentence that contains an interrogative pr(h- 

The Interrogation Poiit (?) which ought to be placed after 
t^tiy question. 

How, then, can you tell when who is a relative pronoan, a»d when ao 
lnt«rrogative ? 

By looking at the end of the sentence; if the interrogation 
point is there, it is for the most part an interrogative pronoun ; 
if Do^ it is a relative. 


What are adjective pronouns ? 

Adjective Pronouns are words that are Bomttimes Hitd insttad 
of nouns, but are more frequently followed by their nouns, which 
they limit, or qualify, after the raanner of adjectiv^es. 

Give me one or two sentences containing adjective prononns. 

" Hand me that book." " I have some apples." " Hare von 
any paper ?" That^ some, and ani/ are adjective pronouns. ' 

Mention some of the principal adjective pronouns ? 
ThiSf that J these' those, some^ no^ none, any, all, each, every, «'• 
ther, neilJier. * 

How can you tell adjective pronouns t 

By their being followed by a noun ; as, these pens, some money, 
each breath, either side. 


Make lists of the personal, relative, interrogative, and adjective 
pronouns, in order, as they occur in yie following sentences. The 
pupil will do well to make his lists according to the following 

Example. Jane, I told you to hand me that book which' is lying 
on the table, but you have not done it. What is the reason f 

Lists. Personal. * Relative, Interrogative, Adjective' 

r, you, me, ) Which. What That, 

you, it. \ 

1. You say, that* I am charged with a great crime. Who are my 
Accusers ? Let them stand Ibrth, that I may see the authors of thia 
base slander. 

2. If every man would do his duty, none would have cause for 

3. Can we stand patiently by, and see our property torn from us ? 
No; each generous enaotion of our hearts forbids it. Let this tyrapjt 
tremble, and all his satelites beware ! 

4. The men whom I saw had each a musket. 

5. Wherever she went, every one seqmed disposed to do her honor, 

6. Look on this picture and on that. 

♦Note. The word that, is eometim^sa eoniunction, sometimes a relative, and 
At other times an adjective pronoun ; the pupil must decide which it 1b by the fe- 
tation that it bears to other words in the sentence. In this sentence, that is not 
a relatfve, for it does not relate to any antecedent ; it is not an adjective pronoun, 
for It is not joined to, or us^d for, any noun, but it is a coi^uiction, for it conntaet4 




What ii a Relatlre Pronoun ? 

A Relative Pronoun is one that relates to a noun or pronouo 
going before, called the antecedent. 

What ii tb« aateeedent ? 

The antecedent is a noun or pronoun before the relative to 
which it relates. 

lo the Bentenee, '* He that does right leill be rewarded," what is tho rela- 
tive and what the antecedent T * 

Th'tf is the relative, and he is the antecedent. 

What porvice doei th« relative perforoi in a sentence ? 

The relative is used to introduce a clnnse for tho purpose of 
liniiiin;^, explaining, or adding something further to wlmt is bein*^'" 

What \t a clause Ibaa introdaoed by a relative, anllad? 

A Relative CLAfs*^. 

What is the relatlTe clause in the eentence, ** He that does right will tii 
retoarded .^" 

Tlidt (loe$ right is the relative clause, because it is introduced 
by the i dative that. 

Select the relative, the antecedent, and the relative clause, in the ro]low> 
ing tenteDcei. 

]♦ The friends that we gain in childhood, often forget us in old age. 

2. The wind, which had been shifting all day from point to point, 
now began to blow steadily from the south. 

3. Those who are the most industrious are the most happy. 

4. James, whose work was the best, received the premimn. 
0. I have seen the man that lives in the cavt. 



The sentences given in this exercise contain a relative and its an- 
tecedent^ the pupil must complete them by inserting the relative 
clause, where the blank occurs. Before attempting to insert the 
clause, read the whole sentence, and then think of somethi'ng that 
will be appropriate. 
EiiXPLE. The study that is History. 

Completed. The study that / lile lest is History. 
Or, The study that I dislihe most is History. 
lOr, The study that I Jind most di1]icult is History. 

Each sentence may be completed in a variety of ways. 

1. I have broken my watch, which ' . 

2. The tree that , was blown down last night. 
S. My father, icho , has get well. 

4. Those tr/io will be happy in this world, and still happier 
in the next. 

5. Horses are very useful to those who 
C. £n every school there are boys who 

7. I'homas found the kaife ichich 

8. There is a boy tchose 

9. Mary is the most di-liigent girl that 

10. The good boy wili apply himself vigorously to the lesson 

11. The carriage which has been mended. 

12. 'Columbug was ihe tirst man that 

13. The butterflies v^kich .. will all perish in winter. 
H^. The dog that has run away. 



<■> . • 

in tiie sentence, " I saw John fepdipg his chickens," which word impliea 
«ctioD, and at the same ti me, J.ohc ? 


4.) FIRST BO1IX TS' r.'/MP09ITI0K, 

Which part nf speech implies action, ami which qualifier nouna ? 

The verb implies action, and the adjective qualifies nouns. 

The word feeding, thon, partakes of the nature of what two parts of 
tpeech ? 

The veib and tie adjective. 

"What nnme is given to feeding, and similar words? 


What is a participle? 

A participle is a wo^d that describes a noun or pronoun, bjr 
assigning to it a certAiii action or state. 

Doee the participle form a distinct part of speech ? 

No; participles are now classed as parts of verbs. 

How many participles has every trnnsilive verb? 


Mention the Tire participles of the verb love, 

J.'jviiiij^ iorcd, Iinvhif/ loveJ, hebuj loved^ Imviiuj been loved^ 

Kr>w many participles haa every inirapi?itive verb .' 


Mention \\ie two pnrtioiples of »bo inlrnnsitiTC verb walk. 

Wu!/:irif/^ huvhui walkfd, 

(iive ine two cr three ?entcnce> cimtaiiiing partitijiles, jird select the par., 
ticiple in each. 

.TamcR, while vulkivq I v the .*>hore, saw a iMrsje bass attached 
by a shark. 

Ifavhfj been deceived once, I never trusted him again. 
He died, loved anc' rcapected by oil that knew him. 

In •' ttlast sentence, what cUufe is introduced by t}i« partieiylej, loved 
and .'. ■^'•Udf 

" . . ,(/ and r'csp(f(J(d by aU that kvcw himj^ 

Wj, •. .. "'..i,c(3 introduced by, or coutaininf, a partieLpJe, called ? 

A 1 " .' ' '- Clause. 

Self*., lUe I..,' . ^ > I clause in each of t' e ttree BeateofCB g1ve» abov«'* 



Complete the following sentences by inserting a participle in 
place of th6 blank. 

Example. The day fair, we started on our journey. 

Comphted. The day leing fair, we started on our journey. 

1. Moses, his lessons, recited them well. 

2. We saw a boy in the river. 
8. Dinner , the party sat down. 

4. The carriage , Robert has taken it to the blacksmith's, 
to get it 

5. My dog sick, I could not go a hunting. 

6. I have just seen a man killed by from the top /)f a house. 

7. My friend, while out on horseback, was thrown and seri. 
ously injured. 

8. I saw the Confederate flag fr*om the City Hall. 
• 9. You may often see bad boys in the street. 
iO. Our house , we are about to move into it. 

• 11. The merchant spends his tfme in and goods. 

12. Gas is useful for streets and houses. 

18. Oxen are used for wagons. 

14. Ships, while on the ocean, often encounter violent storms 

15. The weather we must have a fire 

16. From this eminence my eyes upon the vast plain that lay 
befor* me, I saw a herd of buffaloes amid the long prairie- 
grass, and a group of wild horses away in the far distance. 

^ 17. He was a bad man, and died, and by all that knew 




[FcT the answers to '{bu following questions, see Chapters XV., XVIL, 

XVIII., XIX., and XX.] 
. "What ia the subject of a verb? 

How may you find the suVijectof a verb? 

Wh*t Esay a \erb havo for its subject? 


What is the object of a verb ? 

What other part* of speech, besides transitive verbs, may have tm object T 

How may you find the object of a verb or proposition ? 

What is a pronoun ? 

Name the classes of pronouns. 

What ia a personal pronoun ? Mention the personal procoucs.. 

Wh at is a relative pronoun ? Mention the relative pronouns-. 

What is an interrogative' pronoun? Mention the interrogative pronouns. 

What is an adjective pronoun ? Mention some of the principal adjective 

What is a relative clause ? 
What is-the antecedent of a relative pronoun ? 
What is a participle ? 

How many participles has a transitive verb? an intra-nsitive verb ? 
Mention the participles of the verb ask- Mention those of th<e verb dreams 
What is a participial clauEc ? 


Where a dash occurs, pat in one or more worcJs, as- may be re-' 
quired to comp^pte the sense. 

The Tame Beak. 

Hans Christian Anderson, the German writer, tells i^s the follow* 

ing story of a tame bear, which broke loose while the man^ 

exhibiting him was dinner. He made his way to- 

public bouse, , and went straight where there 

was three children, the eldest whom was no more than six 

or eight old. '*The door sprang open, and in walked, — ;— .. 

The children were much frightened ^ and crspt cor- 
ners. The bear followed , and rubbed them with nose, 

but he did not . When the children , they thought it 

was a big dog, and they patted, , and . The eldest 

boy now his drum, and began to loud noise. No- 

sooner'did the bear , than he raised himself on and 

began to dance. This was charmimg. 

The boys had been playing at soldiers before , and now each 

his gun and •— . They gave the bear a gun, too, and 

he liko a regular militia-man^ 'Then they aaarched ; what a 

fine comrade ! 

Presently, however, the door again It was the children's- 



oaother. You should have seen her ; and her face was white as 

aind she trembled with fear when saw the ► Then the small- 

^t ran up to feer, and shouted, ' Mamma, mamma, we hare 

had such -, playing soldier !' " . 



What is a sentence? 

A sentence is such an assemblage of words as makes 
complete sense. 

How many kinds of sentences are there, and what are they? 

Four kinds ; declarative,' imperative, interrogative, and 

What is a declarative sentence ? 

A declarative sentence is one in which something is 
declared ; as, " It rains." 

What is an jmperp,tive sentence ? 

An imperative sentence is one in which "permission is 
givftri, or a command, an exhortation, or an entreaty ut- 
tered ; as, " Let it -rain." 

What is an interrogative sentence ? 

An interrogative sentence is one in which a question 
is asked ; as, '' Does it rain ?" 

What is an exclamatory sentence ? 

An exclamatory sentence is one that contains an excla- 
mation ; aSj *' How it rains !" 

Make two declaratire sentences: two imperatiTc; two interroga- 
tive; two exclamatory; 



What i§ a phrase? 

A phrase is a combination of words which separately 
.have no connection, either in construction or sense, with 
other words in the sentence, but which, when taken to- 
gether, convey a single idea, and may be construed as a 
single word. Thus ; *' James, in short, has become a her- 
mit," — in this sentence, in short is a phrase. 

What is a claase ? * 

A clause is a combination of words which separately 
may or may not be connected in construction with other 
words in the sentence : if so connected, they assert some 
additional circumstance respecting the leading proposition; 
as, " James, who had been on the tvatch, espied a sail :" if 
not so connjectcd, they assert an entirely independent 
proposition; as, Stephen sailed for Florida, h\x.t he wa9 
wrecked on the voyage. In these sentences the words in 
italics are clauses. 

What is a relative clause ? 

A clause containing a relative pronoun ; as, " James, 
for whom I felt so much anxiety, has arrived." 

What is a participial clause ? - 

A clause containing a participle ; as, " The rest of the 
ompany having arrived, we went to dinner." 

AVhat is an adverbial clause? 

A clause that performs the office of an abvcrb, and gen- 
erally expresses time, place, or manner ; as, "-4 thousand 
ycum hence, all these things will have pas3%d away." 

What is a vocative clause? 

A clause containing the name of an object addressed, 


with its adjuncts ; as, " My dear friend^ I hope to meet 
you soon." 

When is one noun said to be in apposition with another f 

When it refers to the same object, and is in the same 
construction ; as, *' Paul, the Apostle " — Apo%tlevA in ap- 
position with Paul. 

May more than one of the clauses enumerated above, occur in the 
same sentence ? 

They may. 

Does every sentence contain one of these clauses ? 

No ; there are some simple sentences that do not con- 
tain any of these clauses ; as, " I lore my mother." 

^ Oral Exercise. 

Tell to what class each of the following sentences belong. When 
A clause occurs, tell what kind of a clause' it is. 

1. Oh lor a lodge in some vaRt wilderness I 

2. There are men in the world, who are dead to every geaeroua 

8.* Have you heard the ne^vs that has just been received by th« 
steamer ? 

4. Rising from his seat, the monarch gazed arotind ; and, darting 
a look of scorn on his humbled courtiers, bade them leave his pres- 
ence till they should become honest men. 

5. My son, do you indulge in anger ? 

6. Romeo, Romeo ! wherefore art thou Romeo ? 

7. Who ever hears of fat men heading a riot, or herding together 
in turbulent mobs ? 

8. It is chiefly through books that we enjoy intercourse with sa* 
perior minds. 

9. The ship being now under sail, the shore began to recede rapid- 
ly from our sight. 

10. Lord Hastings, who had bore himself most bravely throufb* 
out the whole battle, escaped with a slight wound. i 


11. James, whom I sent to the river an hour ago, has not yet re- 
I 12. TVhat an accident ! Did you ever witness a scene like this ? 
13. Where Freedom rears her banner, a new empire has arisen. 



What is the term " Composition " derived from ?' 

It is derived from two Latin words, which signify " to 
put together,** 

What is " composition " ihsn ? 

It is " a putting together.' ' 

Can we speak of the '* composition " of a substance, like paste or 
varnish ? • ^ ' 

We can. 

What do we mean by it ? 

We mean " the putting together " of the material of 
which the substance is made up. 

When we speak of the "composition" of & picture, what do we* 
mean ? 

Wc mean ^^the putting together** of the different ob- 
jects which make up the picture ; as, a mountain^ trees, a 
river, J'C. 

When we spoak of a *' composition " on any auhjecC^ what do wo 
mean ? 

We mean ^^ a putting together*' of the thoughts which 
« belong to the subject. 


Suppose you were to write "Grass is green;" "Birds sing;' 
*' John is blind ;" would that be composition ?" 

It would not. • •* 


Because the thoughts are not connected with each other, 
nor with a subject. 

Suppose you take for y«ur subject, "J. hllnd &oy ;'' and write, 
** John is blind ; he cannot see that the grass is green, but ho can 
hear th« birds sing :" is that '* composition ?" 

It ijB. . 


Because the three thoughts, "John is blind," "Grass 
is green," " Birds sing," are connected with each, other, 
and with the subject, " A blind boy." 

How, then, cun thoughts which are independent of each other, 
often be united ? 

By introducing another thought which will connect 
them. • 

Give an example. ' 

In the example, " John is blind ; he cannot see that 
the grass is green, but he can -hear the birds sing," — the 
two thoughts, " he cannot see," " but can hear," connect 
the three independent thoughts, "John is blind," " Grass 
is green," " Birds sing." 

Are there not many thoughts belonging to erery subject ? 

There are. 

How should these be *' put together ?" 

Tli^y should be so "j:)wi together^'' X\\ht they will ap- 
pear to follow each other in a natural order. 


Id what, then, does " composition " coDsist? 

It consiBts in " putting together," in a natural order^ 
thoughts belonging to a subject. 



What has " CompMition " beon defined to be ? 

Composition has been defined to be " a putting togeth- • 
er" of thoughts under a subject. 

Are there not many kinds of composition ? 

There are.» 

What is the first kind of oomposition ? * 

" Descriptive " is the first principal kind of composition- 

What is " description ?" • 

It is "a putting together *' of our impression of any 
object or scene. 

Why is this called the first kind of composition f 

Because it relates to that which wo see, and that which) 
we tety lies at the beginning of Thought. 

How, only, can we learn to describe well ? 

By studying attentively, the object or scene which wo» 
wish to describe. 

What is necessary to a go6d description V 

That those particulars be given, in which the ol)ject or 
scene differs from other objects or scenes. 


, If I V7er« to ask j«u to describe jour kitten^ and jou should say, 
It has whiskers, four legs, and a tail," would thtc be a gtod d«s~ 

It would not. 
Why not ? 

Because it mentions only things whioh are oomAon to 
ftll kittens, and- does not describe any particular one. 

Suppose you were to say instead, ^' It has a glossy black fur, a 
white diamond between its eyes, and one white whisher," would 
that be a good description ? 

It would be. 

Because it describes particulars which distinguish the 
kitten from other kittens ? • 

Do not such jSarticuIars enable us to distinguish objects of tha 
same kind from each other ? 

They do. 

Could not a dog be distinguished among a hundred others, by 
4>ne who was familiar with it ? 

It. could. 

. What, then, is a good rule for describing an ebJQot ? 

To give those particulars by which ■ we know it ftrom 
i)ther objects of the same kind. 

What is a tcenef 

A scene is a combination of objects. 

How, then, should a scene be described ? 

By giving those particulars, in the objects and theiy 
arrangement, by which it is distinguished from other scenes. 





You may take the subject which you -will find upon the 
following page, and write your own ansivers to the ques- 

Take each question by itself, and do your best to an- 
swer it fully ') using tlie same language as in speaking. 

\Vhen you have done this, join these answers together 
in correct sentences. 

Your composition will then be done, all except copying. 

In copyins:, the principul things to remember are these : 

To \> IlITl; NEATLY, 

Tasi';:i/i- oorukctly, and 


If roil attend to these directions your composition will 
then be ready to. hand to your teacher. * 

S U B J E Cl^ NO. 1 . 

1. I« not the strawberry season always anticipated with 
great pleasure by the children ? 

2. How early <loe^the plant begin to show its blossoms? 


3. What kind of flowers are they ? 

4. When the flower disappears, -what does it leave? 

5. How long are these green clusters in ripening ? 

6. As soon as they begin to turn red, what do children do? 

7. Where do they hunt for them ? 

8. Where do they find the largest ones ? 

9. Do not the bright red clusters look delicious ? 

10» Bo not'mGre berries go into mouths, than into bas- 
kets, generally ? 

11. Are not strawberries a favorite fruit with almost 
every one ? 

12. Are they not much cultivated in gardens? 

13. Do they not sometimes grow to a large size .? 

14. How large have you seen them? 



Strawberries are the earliest of all th« berries in sum- 
mer. On this account, as w^U as because they are the 
most delicious -of all, every one looks forward with great 
pleasure to the time when they will be ripe. You can 
mention how early children begin to watch the buds and 
blossoms of this little plant in' the field and by the way- 
side. You can describe the clusters of white blossoms, 
and their gradual change into ripe, red berries ; then the 
joy cf the children ; the plans they form for their holiday 
aftei5iioons ; th^ir.plea.aant excursions in parti.e.s, with has- 


l:ets and tin pnils, to hunt for the red treasures ; in wbat 
ilkind of places they look for them ; where they find the 
^largest, and how many they sometimes hring home : also, 
jfcow you like hest to eat them. 

You can describe, too, the manner in which this fruit is 
"lenltivated in gardens, and the size to which it some- 
tWnes grows, 


ANTS, , 

1.' Do not ants seoir. to be about as busy creatures as 
liees ? 

2. Arc they as useful to us as bees ? 

o. What do bees furnish us with ? 

4. May we not, however, learn something frou^ the ant ? 

fj. IIow do they show industry and perseverance ? 

6. VVliat kind of houses do .they live in ? 

7. Do. they build these themselves? 

8. If any accident happens to their dwelling,, what da 
they do ? 

9. Arc they ever out of patience or discouraged ?^ 

10. Are not such accidents very frequent ? 

11. Ho'v '^0 they provide for the future ? 

12. "Wii ' mv wo learn fron> them in this ? 

13. A: ... ^ 1. ' oMterprising little creatures? 


14. Have you ev*^r seen one carrying a burden much lar- 
ger than hito self ? 

15. How did he manage ? . * 

16. What other facts do you know about these little in— 
isects ? 


Solomon, who you know was the wisest of men, says^ 
" Go to the ant, thou sluggard ; consider her ways, and. 
be wise ;*' which shows that he himself had learned lessona 
of industry from this little insect. 

You must observe: he says, '''' Con%iderhQV ways;"" 
which means, we mw^t study the movements of the little 
creatures, watch their going in and their coming out, and 
ifind out, if we can, the pitrpose of each movement ;' for 
you will learn, by watching them, that each purpose has 
a purpose. All this you must do ; and in addition to your 
own observations, you should find out from books, or by 
asking questions, as much as possible about the habits of 
this little insect, and any interesting facts or anecdotes 
concerning them. In this way, you will find more than 
enough material for one composition. If you choose, you 
;may divide the questions, and' write twice upon this subject. 



1. What kind ©f looking creatures are frogs ? 

2. What sort of places do they live in ? 


8. What do they live upon ? 

4. What kind of a noise do they make ? 

5. Is it not one of- the first sounds in spring ? 

6. Is it a pleasant sound? 

7. Does it not express contentment as much as the sing- 
ing of birds ? 

8. Is it not easy to see how birds can be happy, hopping 
about in the trees ? 

9. Are not frogs just as happy in dirty marshes and 
pools ? 

, 10. Has not God made every creature for some partic- 
ular place ? 

11. Would a frog enjoy himself if he were to change 
places. with a bird? 

12. What lesson can we learn from this thought ? 



The peeping of these strange creatures is^ one of the 
earliest indications of the approacfi of summer. On this 
account, it is a delightful sound to every one. You can 
describe the feeling of pleasure with which you alw^-ys 
hear it for the first tim-e, after winter has departed, and 
all the pleasant visions it brings to ^\\x mind of the com- 
ing summer ; of blue skies,. and soft, warm air ; cf walks 
in the W(XK&, wild flowers, and green moss. You. can des- 
cribe tho haunts of thcie creatures, — some of t^em in. 

first' book in compg-sition. 55 

pleasant places ; their queer noises and sudden jumps,— 
what these mean. You can compare their life with th;n, 
of a bifd. If you choose, instead- of writing answers i«» 
the questions, you may write a story of a discontentc'l 
frog who thought he would try a bird's life, his adven- 
tures, and how at lapt he became a contented ^rog. 

S U B J E C T NO . 4. 

1. Are not flies the most common of insects ? 

2. Do they sting like musquitoes ? 

3. Are they not, howe^jer, sometimes very troublesome ? 
• 4. How are they troublesome ? . 

5. What do they like best to eat ? 

6. Are they not most abundant in very warm weather? 

7. Is it easy to drive one away when he makes up his 
mind to attack you ? 

8. What kind of traps do people set for them ? 

9. How does the fly get caught ? ' ' . 
10* Are not great numbers often destroyed in this way ? 

11. What is the greatest enemy of the fly ? ^ 

12. How does the spider catch it ? 

13. How do flies manage to walk on the ceiling*? 

14. Could a bird walk so ? 

15. Do flies like cold weather ? 

16. What becomes of them in winter ? 



You can speak particularly of the troublesome charac- 
ter of this insect, — the annoying way in which it will re- ■ 
turn, again and again, after being driven off. You can 
describe one of these attacks upon yourself, and mention 
which at last gained the victory, you or the fly. You can 
also give a full description of the manner in which the 
spider constructs his web, and manages t© catch the fly. 

If you will consider a moment, it will seem quite won- 
derful to you that a fly can walk upon the ceiling : you 
know a bird could not walk so. If you cannot give the 
reason yourself, you should ask some one to explain it to 
you; and when you have obtained a clear idea of all these 
particulars, *you should try to describe them accurately in 
your composition. 

1. Where do birds generally build their nests ? 
, 2. Why do they build them so high ?* 

3. What is the outside nf the nest made of? 

4. What is the inside lined with ? 

5. Where do birds get the materials for their nests ^ 

6. Do they collect it together, and carry it. in one load 
in their claws ? 

7. How do they manage it ? 


8. Is not a bird's-nest full of young birds, or of little 
blue eggs, a pretty sight ? , 

;9. Is it not cruel to rob a bird's nests ? 

10. How does the old bird feel when any one is near her 
jaest ? 

11. How doee she show her distress ? 

12. Do the birds leave their nests when they fly off to 
the south, or do they take them ? 

14. Will they not build other nests when they return in 
the spring ? 


Have you ever found, in the Fall, after the cold winds 
,had come,, or in winter, half full of snow, a little bird's 
nest ; and examined how neatly it was wovep together, — 
the outside of rough eticks and leaves, and the inside 
lined so delicately with soft hair ? If you have, you 
can describe all this in your own way, and mention where 
and how you found the nest, and to what bird it probably 

You ca,n describe, also, under the (Questions, the process 
of building a nest; the appearance of a nest full of eggs, 
Or of little birds ; the actions of the young birds while 
you were near the nest ; th6 movements and cries of dis- 
tress of the mother ; the manner in which the old bird 


feeds the young ones ; what she gives them to cat; and 
what hccomes of the nest when the little birds have learned 


1. What tree do these nuts grow upon ? 

2. What kind of a bur are thev inclosed in ? * 

3. When do these burs open ? 

4. What becomes' of the nut when the bur opens ? 

5. Is not this time eagerly watched for ? 

6. Are not nutting excursions then all the fashion ? 

7. Are these not delightful ? 

8. Is it always easy to find the nuts ? 

9. What sometimes covers them up ? 

10. Do not the nuts sometimes stick in the burs ? 

11. Is it not great work for boys to shake them dt)wn? 

12. Is it not pleasant to take tome a good basket full of 
nuts ? 

15. What is done with them in the evening, sometimes ? 

14. Are not these nutting excursions the pleasantest 
things in autumn ? 

16. Are they not the last of the season? 
16. How do the woods begin to look ? 



In mentioning th^ chesnut-tree^ you can compare it 
with the oak, and speak of the difference between the two- 
trees, in their general appearance and the manner in which 
their branches grow, shape of the leaf, &c. You can des- 
cribe the appearance of the chesnut-tree when in blossom, 
the kind of ftowev it bears, and the 'clusters of green burs 

which succeed the flower. Also, the effect of the frost 
I ... 

upon these burs, and the eagerness with which children 

watch for the dropping of the nuts ; the excursions into 
the woods which take place; the shuffling and poking among 
the dry leaves ; the gathering of the nuts ; the pleasure 
of bringing them home ;-then of boiling them and sharing 
them with friends. « 

You can speak of these excursions into the wood as be- 
ing the last of the season, and describe the signs of the. 
coming winter,- — cold winds, bare trees, &;c. • 


1. What do Katy-dids look like ? 

2. What color are they ? 

3. Is not their note very peculiar ? 

4. What does it sound like ? 

5. How do they make it ? 

6. When, do we first begin to hear them in summer ?. 


7. Do tliej not seem always to be contradicting each 
other ? 

8. What does one side say ? 

9. What do the others reply ? 

10. Do they ever seem to come to any agreement about 
Katy ? 

11. Do they not take up the same old tune every summer ? 

12. Has any one over found out yet what Katy did ? 

13. Do you suppose any one ever will find out ? 

14. is it likely the Katy-dids and Katy-didn'ts ever will 
agree ? 

15. Does not this'show how hard it is for people to stop 
when they once begin to contradict ? 

16. Should it not be a waaoing to every one to be ve:^y 
careful about beginning a dispute ? 


You can describe, very particularly, the appearance of 
this curious insect, and the manner in which it produces 
the peculiar sound from which it takes its name. 

You can speak of the time in the summer when this note' 
begins to be heard, and describe a concert of summer 
evening sounds; the various notes which mingle with those' 
of the Katy-did ; and the peculiar effect, Ifke that of per-' 
petual contradiction, produced by this insect. 

• ■ 

FIRST cOvrii. xaN composition. Oi 

'J T ■ 

You can, if you please, write an imaginary story of tae 

manner in whioh this quarrel originated, and nM any re- 
flections which may occur to you upon the habit of con- 
tradiction, ^,nd the determination to have the last word 
ir^ a dispute. 


,S U B J E G T NO . 8. 


1. Are apple trees graceful ? 

2. Are they not generally low and crooked ? 

3. Are they not easy trees to climb ? 

4. If they wer^ lofty, like the elm, would it not be diffi» 
^ult to gather the fruit ? 

, 6, Are not all associations with this tree very pleasant ? 

6. Are they net beautiful when they are ladpn with the 

7. What color are their blossoms ? 

8. Have they not a delicious fragrance ? 

9. When the flowers disappear, what succeeds ? 

10. How long ;does it take for the lltjtle green applet to 
ripen ? 

ll.|How does the tree look when laden with ripe fruit ? 

12. When th<2 red and golden apples begin to drop, is it 
not pleasant to gather them J 

IS.^What is the fir^t thing to be done every morning ? 

t)2 - riRST BOOK IN coMPOsmoiT. 

14; If there has been a high wind, is not the grou* <l 
strewn with them ' 

15. What is done with the apples ? 

TO THE pupil: 


You can speak of the ease with which this tree is climbed, 
T,nd of other reasons why it is a favorite with children ; 
and describe its appearance in the different seasons : be- 
ginning with spring, when it is covered with Tts beautiful 
pink and white blossoms ; then, when these blossoms be- 
gin to fall, the showers of white leaves and the delightful 
odors which fill the air ; the curious little green things 
which the flowers leave >behind them ; the slow growth of 
these into rich,^ ripe apples ; the appearance of the tree 
when the fruit is ripe, sometimes bending under its red 
and golden burden ; and the way it which the branches 
are prevented from breaking off, when they are too heav- 
ily laden. Describe, also, the gathering of the fruit, and 
mention what is done with the different kinds of apples 
aaad all the v^.rious uses of this fruit. 

* SUBJECT NO. fi . 
1. Where does rain come from ? 
5. How does it get int© the clouds 1 

I. . i •;Ji''A.» 


3. If it were not for rain, would not every thing upon 
the earth die ? 

4. In S'lmmer, do not many weeks often pagg away "with- 
out any ? 

5. How does every thing loojc then ? 

6. Does not rain always come at last ? 

7. Is it not delightful to see the clouds roll up, and the 
dnops begin to fall ? 

8. Does R€t the grass begin to gr^w green again im- 
•mediately ? 

9. How dees the air feel, and every thing look, after 
the shower ? 

10. Do not children always like rain when it does not 
t spoil their plans ? 

11. If they are planning an excursion, do they like to see 
the clouds ? - 

12. Do they not always trj" to think it will not rain ? 

13. If the rain does come, ought they to complain ? 

14. Is it not always good 'for the earth ? 


You will be able to aAiiswer the first question ; but per- 
Sibaps you may not know how the rain gets into the clouds. 
. This you must learn by asking your Teacher. 

Xau.can describe the appearance of every thing in sum- 

Oi i-lRSr UOUX IN CUMl'Ual'i'lON. 

mer, Tvlien several weeks have passcd'without rain, — so 
driid up ; the grass scorched and withered ; and the air 
filled with dust, and every body uncomfortable ; then the 
sh wer, ^^hich alwajs comes at lafet ; the delight of every 
(jne, wh(jri the clouds are seen rolling up; the falling of 
the rain ; tbe overflowing of the streets ; then the bursting 
forth of tlio Run ; the fresliened air, and the altered ap- 
pearance of the landscape. Yon can speak, also, of the 
manner in which children sometimes complain of the rain, 
when it interferes with their plains ; and give the reaaons 
why this is wrong. 



1. When does frost first come ? 

2. Does it not make sad work with the beautiful summer 
flowers ? 

8. Before it comes, how do they look ? 

4. After it, is not everything change(^ ? 

5. What becomes of the grass and flowers ? 

6. Are not the trees the only thing which the frpsj; does 
not spoil ? 

7. What does it do to them ? 

8. Do their bright colors last long? 

9. What do they gradually turn into ? 
10. What becomc,g pf the leaves finally ? 


li. Are not the trees left bare ? • 

12. Do not the cold winds begin to whistle through them 
then ? 

13. Is not this a sign that winter is coming ? 

14. Is it not pleasant, then, to gather round the bright 
fire in the house ? 

15. Do not the evenings begin to grow long then ? 

16. How is it pleasant to spend them ? 


You can describe the gradual signs of Jack Frost's ap- 
proach in the chill September nights, growing colder and 
colder, till finally he makes his appearance ; then th^ 
change which comes over every thing ; the desolation of 
the gardens, as frost after frost passed over them ; every^ 
thing a dull, dead brown except the trees ; the beautiful 
colors with which these are adorned ; the gradual fading 
of these bright leaves, till finally they drop ofi"; then the 
bare appearance of the trees; the darkened, chilly skifes * 
the whistling of November winds, and the freezing tem- 

You can describe the gathering round bright fires in the 
hdiise, the lengthening evenings, and the various ways in 
ivhich these may be pleasantly spent. 

CG- riRf5T BOOK nc composition. 

SUBJECT 1^0. 11. 

1. What conies next after frost ? 

2. Are not children always delightod to see the snow*^. 
•when it Srst comes ? 

3. Do they not get tired of the dead grass and leaves t 

4. Are they not glad to have them covered up ? 

5. Do these not like to watch- the snow-flakes as thejr 

6. Do these make any noise in-falling ? 

7. Does it not often snow all night, without any one 
finding it out ? 

8. Is it not a great surprise in the morning, uo see every 
thing white with snow ? 

9. How do the trees and roofs look ? 

10. Is k not pleasant to hear the sleigh-bells begin to» 
jingle ? . 

11. How do boys play with the anow ? 

12. Do they not like it all the better, the deeper -it is,«? 

13. Does it not seem strange, that such a cold thing- as 
snow can keep any thing warm ? 

14. Dees it not keep the earth warmer than it woulcfbe 
without it ? 

15. Would not a great, many plants die in winter;^ if •it. . 
were no^ for the snow l 




'You can speak of the pleasant change from the dreary, 
frozen eartli, to the clear, white snow ; the delight ot 
children, when they see the first white flakes floating in 
the air ; how they like to catch these as they fall, and see 
them melt in their hands ; and the various beautiful forms 
of these snow-flakes. You can speak of the Btitlness of a 
snow-storm, a-nd describe the changed appearance of 
^very thing after one has taken place in the night ; the 
"beautiful effect of the morning sun upon the pure white 
'landscape ; then the iingling of sleigh-bells, the shovel- 
ling of paths, a^id all the sports which snow brings with 
it for children ; snow-balling, forts, coasting, &c. : all 
'sfchese you wiM^and no difficulty in describing. 

You can jnention, also, the reasons why the earth is 
warmer with its snow covering than it would be without it. 


ICB. * 

1, How is ice formed ? 

2, Does not water sometimes freeze in falling from the 
roof of a house ? 

3, What does it form then ? 

4, What shape are these icicles ? 

5.vI)o we not often see great numbers of them hanging 
from houses and tr^es ? 


6. How do they look when the sun shines upon them.? 

1. When the weather is very cold, what happens to the 
ponds and rivers ? 

S. Do not the boys have merry times then, sledding 
and skating ? 

9, Is not ice very slippery ? 

10. If you do not step carefully, will you not certa,inly 

11. Even then, will you not sometimes be over before 
you know it ? 

,12. Do not children like to find a smooth strip by the 
roadside ? 

13. Do they not always stop to try it ? 

14. And sometimes, by doing bo, do they not get late 'to 
school ? 


You can describe the various forms which ice takes in 
freezing ; the beautiful, delicate crystals which are some- 
times found on the top of water ; the long, sharp-pointed 
icicles hanging in stiff fringes from the roofs of houses 
and branches of trees ; the silver coating of boughs and 
twigs ; and the beauty of all this, when the sun shines 
upon it. 

You can describe, too, the freezing of the ponds and 
rivers ; then the skating parties which cover them ; the 


coasting down steep hill-sides ; the caution one is obliged 
to observe in walking upon ice, and various tumbles one 
gets in spite of it. 

You can speak of the pleasure it givei children to iSnd 
^ €k long, smooth strip of ice by the roadside ; the manner 
<of sliding upon it ; and also of getting late to school, and 
its consequences. 


i. Do not all things go to sleep at night ? 

2. How do flowers go to sleep ? 

3. What do chickens do at night ? 

4. What do children do ? 

6. Could any one live without sleep I 

61 Does it not sometimes seem a pity to lose ine beauty 
of the night ? 

7. Are not the moon and the troops of bright stars 

8. Is not their light pleasanter in summer than the gUr* 
ing sun at noon ? 

9. Is it not pleasant to listen to the crickets and the 
katy-dids ? ^ 

10. Do they not seem as glad as peot>le 'are to have the 
sun go down ? 


11. Are not winter nights beautiful, too ? 

12. Are not the stars brighter then than in summer ? 

13. VVhat bright light do "we often see then, in the 
north ? 

14. Does not the show upon the ground help make it 
very light? 

15. At night, does it not almost seem as if- we could see 
heaven between the stars ? 

16» Does not God seem nearer to us at night than bj day ? 



Thcr^e are many thoughts suggested by these questions, 
upon whieh you can dwell at almost any length. Among 
these are,— the uses of the night to plants, to animals, 
and to human beings ; the thought, also, of what would 
become of them without this period of repose. Then there 
are descriptions of the beauty of night ; the glory of the 
tooon and stars, and all the host of heaven j the quiet of 
summer .evenings ; and the song of the katy-did and 
cricket, rejoicing at the .going down of the sun ; then the 
winter night ; the clear, frosty air ; the brilliant aurora 
borealis ; the brightness of the stars ; the light of the 
snow: all these you may» describe as vividly as possible,— r 
then how, at night, we can look up into the sky, without 
b«iDg blinded by the light ; and the longer we look, the 


farther we seem to scq into the deep blue heaven. You 
can speak of the glory of God, as written upon the 
heavens, and of his nearness to us in the still hours of 
the night. 



1. la not early morning the most delightful part of the 

2. Is it not a pity to waste it in sleeping ? 

3. What do the birdB begin to do before daylight in 
summer ? 

4. How do the roosters try to wake up lazy people ? 
6. Is not the air pure and cool in the morning ? 

6. Do not the flowers look fresh, with tlfe dew upon them ? 
' T, Is it not pleasant to take walks before breakfast and 
gather flowers ? 

' 8. Is it not best to wear things which will not be spoiled 
by the dew ? 

9. Cannot a great deal of time be saved by early rising ? 

10. Ought not every one to form the habit of it ? 

11. Have not almost all great men been early risers ? 

12. Have they not been able to study more than other 


13. By this means have they not bocome distinguished 
for their learning, or in some other way ? 

X4, Can you mention any of these by name ? 

|5. Far what were they distinguished ? 


Every pne knows, or ought to know, that the early 
morning is the most beautiful part of the day. You can 
mention the various reasons why it is so ; the fresh ap- 
pearance of every tting ; the coolness of the air ; the beauty 
of the sunrise : and you can speak of the foolishness of 
losing all this beauty by sleeping l^te ; and of the wisdom 
of the little birds, and of Roosters, in comparison with 
lazy children ; how the Roosters begin long before sun- 
rise to croWj^nd the birds to chirp and twitter, as if try. 
ing to make sleepy people wake up and enjoy the beauty 
of the sense. 

You ean apeak, also, of the time that is saved by early 
rising, and estimate how much half an hour saved would 
be at the end of a year ; and you can mention, also, any 
great men who have been early riaers, and for "wkat they 
became distiji^uished* 




1. Would there be any beauty in the Qarth, if it were 
n<irt for trees ? 

2, Do they not cover the mountains and fill the valleys ? 
3*. In spring, what is the appearance of their foliage ? 

4. How does it look in summer ? 


5. IIow does it change in autumn ? 

6. In winter, is it not pleasant to look through the leaf- 
less twigs into the deep blue sky ? 

7. When the trees are covered with ice, how do they 
look in th^ sunlight ? 

8. Do we not love trees best in simmer ? 

'9. Are they «ot of more use to tie then ? 

to. Could we endure the heat of summer without their 
•cool shade ? 

IL After a hot walk in th« sun^ is il not delightful to 
come to a shady grove ? 

12. Do not people sometimes get up pic-nics, and take 
dinner under the trees ? 

13. Is not a grove of trees the most pleasant dining- 
-room in the world T 

14. What is its furniture ? 

74 FIK9T liOOK IX UQMl'OHlilON. 


Trees clothe the whole earth with beauty, and without 
them ¥j would be barren and desolate enough. You oau 
dwell upon this latter idea, and write, if yo\j choose, an 
imaginary description of the earth without trees, in con- 
trast to the earth jis it now is, adorned with its beautiful 
plumage of green. 

You can describe the varied appearance of trees, in 
spring, in summer, in autumn, and in winter. 

You can speak of the scorching heat of the summer 
sun; how impossible it would be to endure this without 
the shade of trees to relieve ft ; and the pleasure, in a sum- 
mer walk, of taking refuge in a shady grove. 

You can describe a pic-nic dinner under the trees ; the 
kind of dining-room which these form; with what it is car- 
peted, and how it is furnished in other respects. 


1. Could not God have made the world without flowers ? 

2. Could we not have houses to live in, and enough t|0 

* * 

cat,. if there were no flowers ? 

8. Might not God have made flowers all of one kind 
and one color ? 

4, Has he not given ue a wonderful and beautiful va^ 
riety ? • . 


5. Has he not scattered them in profusion everywhere ? 

6. Do flowers seem to have been made for any thing 
except to give us pleasure ? 

7. Is not the grass by the roadside often sprinkled with 
little flowers ? 

8. When we see them, ought we not to be thankful to 

9. Shoul-d it not teach us to try to make others happy ? 

10. Cannot we make <?thcrs happy by kiad words and 
;actB, as God makes us liappy with flowers ? 

11. Ought we not to give these as freely ;&g he gives os 
:flowcrs ? 

12. Do we not often trample upon flowers and throw 
them away ? 

13. When we do so, does God fitop giving us flowers ? 

$il4. When people are unkind to us, then, gfiould we stop 
feeing kind to them ? 

15. If wo do, is that being like God? 


* Answer these questions in the order iE which they stand ;. 
rand try to make a -oomposition out of (the thoughts sug- 
^•gested, which sha*il show the love of <(God in giving us 

You must remember then, that it is tfhe 'question, " Why 
do^es /jfod gw<', us flowers T' — th^t you aire to answer, in 


your composition ; and you are to show that it is because 
he lovee us, and wishes us to be happy, that he scatters 
these beautiful things along the wayside and in the woods ; 
and that wc ought to try to scatter kind words and acts 
along the pntlnvay of others, in order to make them hap- 
py, so th;it wo may be like God ; and also that, as he never 
stops giving us good things on account of our ingratitude, 
80 we ought never to become discouraged or weary in 
well-doing by the unkindnes? of others, 





WnAt is Punctuation ? 

Punctuation is the art of dividing written language hy 
points, in order that the meaning may be readily under- 

What are the characters used in Punctuation ? 

Period, , Semicolon • ; 

Interrogation, ? Comma, , 

Exclamation, ! Dash — 

Colon, : Parenthesis ( ) 

Brackets, [ ] • 

Learn these characters perfectly, so that you can malie them on 
the black.boanl. Turn tu the oral exercise at the end of the hvst 
lesson, and mention the names of the points as they occur. 

"Where should the period be used ? 

' A period should be placed after every declaration and 
imperative sentence ; as, " The child is asleep.*' The 
period is also used to denote an abbreviation ; thus, when 
WQ write Dr for Doctor^ or G-eo for George, we must uac 
a period — Dr., Geo. 

Where should fho interrogation point be used? 

An interrogation point should be placed after every in- 
terrogative sentence ; as, '''Have you been to Ohio V 

78 TlBMl iiO-OK IN COMyOSITION, * , 

Where should the exclaraaiion point he used ? 

An^^xclaraation poin-Q should be placed after ever j ex- 
clamatory sentence, and after every interjection except 
; a», " Alas ! woe is me /" • 


Writ© the following sentences, and insert periods, in- 
terrogation points, and exclamation points, in their pro- 
per places. 

Example. Alns true friendship has departed from earth. 
Pimctuated, Alas! true fricndghip has departed from e»/th, 

1. }Iark the bee winds her small but mdcUow^horn 

2. What art thou doing Is revenge so sweet 

3. Ha at the gates what grisly forms appear 

4. Farewell ye gilded follies welcome ye silent groves 

5. What would I have you d(*. ^'11 tell you kinsman • karn to be- 

6. Canst thou nxyt sing Send forth a hymn ®? praise 

7. No mora Fll hciir no more. Begone 

8. How dead th<5 vegetable kingdom lies ^ • 
y. 'Ihe village dogs bark at the e:irly pilgrim> 

10. Olin you recall time that is gone Why then do yon not iir>- 
prove the passing momenta 

11. A braT« man knows no (car 

12. Both stars and sun will fade away ; but can tbe soul of man di* 
18. Oh horrible thought Ah woo is me 

14. Dr Johnson was a learned miin 

15. New iloUand contasna man^ir ^rvgular Evycc!«» of birds- 




Make & -colon on th« blacksboard. 
Where -should the colon be placed ? 

The colon should be placed between clauses that have 
Terj little connection ; and after the words, thvA^ following^ 
'Or as follows^ when reference is made bj them to something 
^•coming after ; as, " The Squire next ascended the plat- 
form,, and spoke as follows : ' Gentlemen and ladies,* " &c. 

Make a semicolon on the black-board. 

For what is the semicolon used ? 

'The semicolon is used to separate long clauses, such 
aeare not very clos<3ly connected ; as, *' I perceive the 
difference; it* is very obvious." 


Rule I, When several long clauses foUow each other 
all having common dependence on some other clause, they 
are separated by secnicolons ; as, "I love to wander 
through the fields ; to see the vegetable world spring into 
life ; to gaze upon the beauties which God has so lavishly 
diffused ; and through the creature to commune with the 

Mule IL When examples are introduced by the word 
as, a semicolon is placed before as ; for an example, see 
the preceding rule, * ' 


Write the following sentences, and insert periods, inter 
rogatiod points, exclamation points, colons, and semico- 
lons, where they are required. 



Example. IJc has arrived he sounds his bugle at the gates Shall 
wc admit him 

Punctuated. He has arrived ; ho sounds his bugle at the gates. 
Shall we admit him ? 

1. The warrior spoke as follows "O man heavy with wine wh]^ 
dost thou keep prattling" 

2. Do not insult a poor man his misery entitles him to pity. 

8. Some books are to be read others are to be studied while many 
may be entirely neglected with positive advantage 

4. His last words were as follows " Farewell may Heaven prosper 
thee in thy perilous enterprise" 

6. If the sacred writers will take up their abode under my roof 
if Milton will cross my threshold, to sing to me of Paradise if 
Shakspeare will open to me the fields of imagination I shall not pinfe 
for want of company 

6. Beauty is an all-pervading presence It unfolds in the flowers 
of ppring it waves in the branches of the trees it haunts the depths 
of the earth and sea. 

7. Gentle reader, have you ever sailed on the sparkling waters of 
the Mississippi 


Make a comma on the black board. 
For what is the comma used ? 

The comma is used to separate short clauses, or such 
as are closely conuected, but, in consequence of the con- 
struction or arrangement, must be separated by some point. 

fi^i'FciAL RuLis. "What is the rule for placing the comma before 
and after clauses and phrases ? 

flule J. TVbfn a clause or phrase is introduced into a 

F33«T lOOK IN COMPOSiTlO*. 81 

centence -without a conjunction, particularly if aft inver- 
sion occurs, go ttat it does not occupy its natural position, 
a ccmraa should be placed before and aftef it ; or, if 8u«h 
clause stands at the commencement of a sentence, a com- 
Sna should be placed after it. 

The principal clauses and phrases that fall under this 
Tule are as follows : 

I. A relative clause ; as, *' Ellen, who was up early, finished her 
lessen." But if the relative clause restricts the antecedent, or the 
connection between the two is very close, there is no comma before 
the relative ; "Those who are good, are happy." 

II. A participial clause ivhen it does not qualify the object of a 
yerb ; as, "The Captain, seeing his danger, .woided it." 

III. An adverbial clause ; as, "By the time we reached shelter, 
^e were completely wet." 

IV. A vocative clause ; as, "Here I am, my beloved son." 

V. The phrase, in shorty in truths on the contrary, &c. ; also, the 
words, 5€»trf<?jf, moreover ^ namely, nfiy, firstly, secondly, &c. The 
conjunctions* aiso and Ax>toe«er, which should not commence a sen* 
tence, have a comma before and after them; as, "Your Cousin, in 
«hort, has become a lovely weman." "James, however, is here." 

What is the rule that relates \o the subject of a verb ? 

RuU II. When the subject of a verb consists of a 

number of words, a comma should be placed after it ; .as 
** Close and undivided attention to any object, insures 

What is the rule that relates to cert&in conjunctions? 

Mule 111. When, to avoid repetition, a verb, or a con- 
junction that connects words of the same part Of speech, 
is omitted, a comma should be put in its place to denote 
the omission; as, "Conversation makes a ready man ; 
writing, an exact man." In the last clause the verb, 
makes is omitted, ahd the comma is put in its place, 
** Solomon was a wise, ^riident, and powerful monarch." 
The conjuiitttrAn and is omitted between wise and prudent^ 
and a comma is put in its place. 


"What is the rule that relates to certain conjunctions ? 

Rule IV. A comma should be placed before and^ oVj 
if^ hut, and that, "when they connect short clauses ; and 
before and, or, and nor, when they connect the last two 
of a series of words that are of the same part of speech ; 
fts, " You must come with me, or I will go with yon." 
" Neither Ellen, Sarah, nor Jane was there." 

What is the rule that relates to nouns in apposition ? 
> » 

Hule V. When a clause of more than two words^oc- 
curs, containing a noun in apposition with some preceding 
noun, a comma should be placed before and after the 
clause ; as, " Columbus, the discoverer of America, was 
born in Genoa." 

Mule VI. Words used in pairs take a comma after each 
pair ; as, " Poverty and distress, desolation and ruin, are 
the consequences of ciril war." 


Copy the following sentences^ and insert commas in 
the proper places. The rule under which the examples 
are given, will direct you ; refer to it, if you do not re- 
member it. 

ExMmpleB under Rule I. The Romans who conquered the world 
could not conquer themselves. Those who fled were killed. Philip 
whose wife you have seen has gone to Albany. We saw a man 
walking on the rails. A man -while imprudently walking on the 
rails was run orer by the cars. Where we stood we could not hear 
% word. Wait a moment my friend. Vice is alluring, and has many 
TOtaries ; virtue on the contrary has but few. 

Under Ruh JL That this ukan has basely deceived those who 
have trusted him cannot be douWted. A long life of good works and 
sincere repentance can hardly atone for such misdeeds. The author 
of these profound and learned pl^ilosophical essays was a poor 
blacksmith. • 

Under Rul$ III. Diligence is the mother of success; laziness of 


failure. The wife was a tall loan cadaverous personage ; the hgsband 
was a fine good looking sturdy fellow. Men women and children 
cry out and run. 

Under Rale IV. No one will respect you if you are dishonest. 
Stephen saw his cousin coming and ran to meet her. My horsfe is 
not handsome but he trots well. He will be here on Wednesday 
Thursday or Friday. Be virtuous that you may be esteemed by 
your companions. 

Under RuU V. Bunyan the author of " The Pilgrim's Progress" 
was a tinker. Paul the Apostle of the Gentiles wrote many epistles. 
I have been in Ireland ill fated country. Cicero the orator, is one 
of the moat distinguished of the ancient Romans. 

Under Rule VI. Industry and virtue idleness and vice go hand 
in hand. Summer and winter seed time and harvest are the gifts of 
an all-wise Providence. Painting and sculpture poetry and music 
will always heve enthusiastic admirers. 


Copy the following extract, inserting the punctuation 
points that have been described. 

The Swan. 

Swans in a wild state are found in the eastern part of Europe but 
they are most abundant in Siberia and the countries that surrouad 
the Caspian Sea Under ordinary circumstances they are perfectly 
harmless but when driven to act on the defensive have proved them- 
selves formidable enemies They have great strength in their wings 
an old swan using these as his weapons has been knawn to break a 
man's leg with a single stroke When their young are in danger 
they do not hesitate to engage with large animals and not unfre- 
quently come off victorious from the struggle A female swan was 

84 TIRBT BOOK IN coupormowT. 

•nee geen to attack and drovrn a fox which, was swimming towards. 
h»r nest for the purpose of feedin;^ upon her young 

When sailing upon the water which is its favorite element the 
swan is a beautiful bird and its motions arc graceful when on landi 
howeTcr it presents a very different appearance its gait being awk- 
ward and all its movements cxceedin[]!ly clumsy 

It has been said by some authors that the swan which during its^ 
life never sings a note sends forth when it is dying a most 
beautiful strain This is no doubt a mere fable at all events we have 
notsuflBcient evidence to establish it as a fact 

Swans were formerly held in such esteem in England that by ao 
act of Edward IV no one but the king's son was permitted to keep 
a swan unless he had an income of five marks a year. By a subse* 
quent act those who took their eggs were punished by imprisonment 
for a year and a day and fined according to ihe king's pleasure At 
the present day swans are little valued for the delicacy' of their fiesb> 
though many are still preserved for their beauty. 



Make a dash; 

For what is the dash used ? 

The dash is used, 

. I. To denote that a sentence is unHiiished ; as, '^ I can- 
not believe that he ." 

II. To denote a sudden transition cither in the form of" 
a sentence, or in the • sentiment expressed, as, " It was a 
sight — that child in the agony of deal li — that would have- 
moved a heart of stone." 

" He had no malice in his mind — 
No ruffles on his shirt.' 


Make a parenthesip. Mako a bracket. 
For what are parenthesis and brackets used ? 

Parentheses and brackets are used to inclose words and 
clausCvS, that are not connected in construction with other 
words in the sentence, but arQ suggested by them, or ex- 
planatory of their meaning ; as, 

'" Know, then, this truth, (enough for man to know,) 
Virtue alone is* happiness below." 

" The wisest men, (and it may be said the best too,) are 
not exempt from ein." ' 

Are parentheses and bi'ackets much used by authors of the pre- 
fient day ? 

No ; commas are generally used instead of them. 

EXERCISE. ' , ' • 

Copy and punctuate the following sentences, 

1. A crimson handkerchief adorned his head 
'His face was cheerful and his nose was red 

2. Sonne and they were not a fevv knelt down 

3. His eyes how thc3^twinkled his dimples bow merry 

4. They poisoned my very soul hot burning poisons 

5. Away ungrateful wretch. A father's curse rest Alas whatam 
I doing I cannot curse my v^on 

6. The frieod of our infancy has she gone forever 

7. Thou merry laughing sprite 
With spirits feather light 

Untouched by sorrow and unsoiled by sin 
Good Heaveps the child is swallowing a pin 

Thou imp of mirth and joy- 
In love's dear chain so strong and bright a link 
"Thou idol of thy parents drat the boy . 

There goe§ my ink 



8. Let us then for we cannot flee without disgrace boldly meet the 

9. Mr, Morton every old citizen kno^ him well died last week of 



Are any other marks used in writing besides those which have 
been described? 

Yes; ■ *. . . ■ ■ 

g Apostrophe, ' , Hyphen, 

. Quotation Marks, " '' Caret, y\ 

Make an apostrophe. For what is the apostrophe used ? 

The apostrophe is u^ed, 

I. To denote the omission of one or more letters ; as, 
tho' for though ; 'neath for beneath, 

II. When 5 i« placed after a noun, mnking it denote 
possession, an apostrophe is inserted before the « ; as, 
John 8 book. But when the noun ends in «, rind signifies 
more than one, an apostrophe alone placed after it, makes 
it denote possession; as, "The ladies' seats." 

Make quotation Marks. For what are quotation maiks used ? 

Quotation marks are used to inclose a passage quoted 
from an author or speaker, in his words ; as, 

" To err is human ; to forgive, divine.*' 
Are single quot.ntion marks ( ' ' ) ever used ? 

Yes; single quotatioh marks are used to inclose quota- 
tions that occur within quotations, or that are slightly al. 


tered from the words of the author or speaker ; as, ^* The 
Scripture saith, 'Watch and pr?^y.' " 

Make a hyphen. For what is the hyphen used ? 

The hyphen is used, 

I. To connect two simple words that unite to form a 
compound word ; as, " A spirit-moving strain." 

II. At the end of a line, -wlrere there is not room for 
the whole of a word, the hyphen is placed after one of 
its syllables, to show that the rem:under may be found at 
the beginning of tlie next line ;* as, " He strove man- 

Mak« -a caret. For what i^ the caret used ? 

When some word that lias been omitted is interlined, 
the caret ia used to show where it should be introduced; 

as, " Study this carefully." 

Copy and punctuate the following sentences : 

A^yostrophe. Ill neer forget your kindness. They sat neath a 
spreading willow. Tho Milton was blind yet. was his mind well 
stored with knowledge. Hark tis the signal gun. Where is my 
fathers hat ? Zenos schoGl was one of the most celebrated irj Greece. 
Romes greatness has passed tiwiiy. I saw the citys gates. I saw 
the cities gates. Where is Janes fan. • 

Quotation marls. P<?ipe says The proper study of mankind is 
wian. When Socrates was asked what man approached t'oe njearest 
tc perfect happiness he answered, That man who has the fewest wants. 
The philo=oph-er hath truly said Anxiety is tho poison of Immanlife. 
The quality of mercy says Shakspe.are is hot strained, iiow much 
tTUth there is in Franklin's maxim. One to-day is worth ' two to- 

•^When thepujjil. in writing, cannot get the whole of a •vrord in the line, and has 
to carry part of it to the next, he rauc-t'be careful to divide it ucoording to its 
syllables, «iud place the hyplien after a compuote syllable. 


ITyplien. A^vaythoii earth polluting miycreint! He is a mis- 
chief maker. The laborer enjoys his well earned feast. Tbe air is 
U\\ of snow. flakes. Where is your ey(i glass?* Near the shore was a 
grove of tpice wootl. The river glides on in its serpent like course. 

Cant. {In iuich of the foUozoing sentences, one or more icords are 

omitted. Introduce the omitted word or words by me0,ns of a caret ; 

as, Dark the p,atb.) 

Labor gives a relish pleasure. Hope, the balm life, soothes under 
cvpry Tftisfortune. Charity is one of the of virtues. , Always show 
;to the aged. Honor your father mother. Do not your time. 



Copy and punctuate the following extracts : 

1, Phocion. Phocion one of tho most illustrious of the ancient 
Greeks was condemnetl to death by his ungrateful countrymen 
"When about to drink the fatal hemlock he was asked if he had any • 
thing to say to his son Bring him before me cried be My dear son 
gaid this fiiagnanimous patriot I entreat you to serve your country 
as faithfully as I have done and to forgot that she rewarded my ser 
vices by an 'unjust acath. 

2. The SynAniTiKS. We have heard many stories of lazy people 
but what Athcnceus tells us of the Sybarites a nation of antiquity 
exceeds them all They would not allow any mechanical trade to be 

, carried on in their city because the noise was unpleasant and dis- 
turbed their slumbers for the same reason to keep a rooster was a 
grave offence punishable by law A Sybarite on one occasion it is 
said wandering out into the country saw some men digging where- 
upon the sight pave him a violent strain "in the bn'ck while a friend 
to whom he described u hal he had seen caught a severe pain in the 
side One of them having visited Laccdasmon was introduced to tho 


public table where thc.pnnci{i?J dish was J/'a^'^ hrath. Ah cried he 
no longer do I wonder at the bravery of the' '^ivtrfon^' for rather 
would I die than to live on such wretched diet. 

3. The Form of the Earth. Heraelitus supposed that the earth 
had the form of a canoe Aristotle that it was shaped like a timbrel 
while Anaxiraander proved to his own satisfiction tliat it was a vast 
cylinder It was reaerved foni later age to discover its real shape 

Wesson xxx. • 


Copy and puntuate the following extract. .' 

The Leprosy in xVfrica. Leprosy that awful disease which cov 
ers the body with scales ^till e Asw in Africa Whether it is the same 
leprosy as that mentioned in the Bible is not known but it is regard- 
edas perfectly incurable and so infectious that no one dares to come 
near the leper. In the south of Africa there is a large lazar house' 
for the victims of this terrible' malady It consists of an imrd%nse 
space inclosed by a very high wall and containing fields which the 
lepers cultivate There is only one entrance and it is^trictly guard- 
ed When any one is found with tho. marks of leprosy upon him 
he is brought to this gate and enters never to return Within this 
abode of misery there are multitudes of U;pcrs in all stages of the 
disease Dr Helbeck a missionary .of the Church of England fr(yn 
the top of a neighboring hill saw them at work He noticed^ two 
particularly sowing peas in the field The one had ^ no hands the 
other no feet those members having been wasted away by the dis- 
ease The one who wanted the hands was carrying the' other who 
wanted the feet on his bavjc and he again bore in his hands the bag 
of seed and dropped a pea every now and then which th^^ other 
pressed kto the ground with his foot and so they managed the work 
<)i one man between, thctwo 

Such is the prison house of disease. Ah how little (^o \vc realize 
the misery, that is in the world How unthankful are wo for the 
blessings Which God bestows upon us while he denies them toothers. 

90 wnn book ik o igM inow. 



What usage formerly prevailed' with regard to capital letters ? 

* . ♦ . . . 

To begin every noun, both in* writing and printing, with! 

a capital. This is still the practiee in the German lan- 

What are the rules' that are to guide us at- the- present day ? 

Begin with a capital letter : 

1. The first word of every sentence. 

2. All proper nouns, and titles of office or honor ; as, 
Home, Spairiy President Davis, General Washington^. 
Henry Street. 

3. Adjectives formed from proper nouns ; as, Roman, 

4. Common nouns when spoken to, or spoken of, as 
persons; as, " Corae^ gentle Spring.'' 

5. The first word of every line of poetry, 

6. The appellations of the Deity, and personal pro- 
nouns standing for His name ; as, ** God is the Lord ; He 
ruleth in His might.'' 

7. The first word of a quotation that? forms £t complete 
sentence by itself, and is not introduced by that, or other' 
words which would connect it in construction with what 
precedes ; as, " liemember the old maxim .* * Honesty isi 
the hest policy .' " 

8. Every important word in the titles of T)Ooks, or 
headings of chapters ; as " Locke's Eisay on Human Uh- 
der standing ," 

9. Words that are the leading subjects of diseoursco. 


10. The prcnoun J, and the interjection (9, must he 
'Written in capitals, 


Copy the following sentences, applying the rules giveii 
above, and observing that where there is no rule for 
'using a capital you must substitute a small letter. 

1. Under Rule I. Know Thyself, honesty is the best policy, fol- 
low -virtue. It Rains, envy is a Dishonorable emotion, avoid the 
-appearance of evil. Improve every Moment. 

2. Under Rules 11. and III. Alexander the great overran syria, 
persia, lydia, and hyrcania, pushing his Conquests as far as the river 
indus. napoleon kept all Europe at buy, until the Fatal Field of 
Waterloo consign^ him to st. helena. President adams received the 
congratulations of the french and Spanish ministers. 

3. Under Rule IV. Hail, winter, seated on thine icy Throne! 
Fierce war has sounded hie trumpet, And Called the peasant from 
the field, bland Goddess peace now smiles upon the plain, hei^ I 
and sorrew sit. (jrim darkness furls his leaden Shroud. 

4. Under Rules V. and VI. 

•in e\eTy leaf that trembles te the breeze, » 
i hear the Voice of god among the trees. 
Trust'in the 'lord ; hath he Spoken, and shall he not do it? 
these, as they change, almighty father, these 
are but the varied god. 

5. Under Rule VII, This was our saviour's command: "watch 
and pray." Virgil says, "labor conquers all things." "merry 
Christmas," t^ried the delighted villagers. 

G. Under Rule VIII. milton's " paradise lost " only brought him 
five ^Pounds. Have you read dickens' Account of his visit to 
am^rica, which he entitles " american notes for general circulation ?" 
I have read with delight hervey's *' meditations among the tombs. ' 

T. Under Rule X. i Ipve thee not as once i loved, o false friend, 
cruel traitor, Heaven I i am undone! wretched youth! i 
thought i hated thee ; but thy misfortune hath turned My Hate to 




What is a sentence? .How many kinds of sentences aro there? 
What is a declarative sentence? an imperative sentence? on inter- 
ro2:ative sentence? an exclamatory sentence ? • 

What is a phrase ? What is a clause ? What is a relative clause f 
a participial clause? an adverbial clause? a vocative clause? 

When is 6ne ^jjoun said to he in apposition wij;h ortother ? 

What is punctuation? Name the characters used in punctuation. 
Where is the period' placed ? What is the period also used to de- 
note ? Where is the interrogation point used ? the ^clamation point f 
Where should the colon be placed? What is Iho semicolon used to 
separate ? Repeat the rule for the use of the semicolon between de- 
pendent clauses ; the rule that relates to examples. 

For what is the comma used ? What is the rule that relates to 
the use of the comma in the case of clauses and phrases ? What 
are the fouj principal clauses that fall under this rule ? Mention 
fioine of the phrases that fall under it. What is the rule that re- 
lates to to the subject of a >ierb ? to the omission of words ?* to cer- 
tain conjunctions ? to nouns in apposition? to words used in pairs ? ' 


Copy the following extracts, inserting ns may be re- 
quired, capital letters,- punctuation points, and the pther 
marks used in -writing, described in Lesson XXVIII. 

1. The Bushman and the missionary, the bushmcn are a very de- 
graded and ignorant race who live in southern africa not far from the 
cape of good hope A missionary who for some time had been la- 
boring to introduce Christianity among thera took occasion one day 
to speak of the great objects of creation and the duties of man. at 
laBt he asked, what is the chief end of man The bushmcn w«re si- 
lent for several moments apparently reflecting what answer they 
shculd give to this difficult question At length one of them who - 
seemed inspired by a s ddcn idea replied, to steal oxen. 

2. The bravery o<" iJoratius codes, when porseuna king of the 


etrurto w^ endeavoring to re-establish tarqumluB superbus <^n the 
throne he attacked romo and had the good fortune to take the jam- 
.ulum at the t.. ass.nU At th. . risi., ^-^^'^J'^^^'^Z^ 
^sentinel but a man ot the greatest courage posted himself at me ex 
tremity of the Sublician bridge and alone withstood the whole fore* 
^f the enemy till the bridge was broken down behind him. he then 
threw -him&elf into tho tiber and swam over to his tnends uaUurt 
by either his fall or the darts of the enemy 
•g. by wisdom tutored poetry exalts 

her voice to ages and informs the pag© 
;^yith music imjige sentiment and thought 



toii what is the dash uged ? For what are pwrenthesei ap4 bradf. 
'^U^ .used ? For what is itc apostrophe used ? quotation marks t thf 

twphen ? the caret ? 
jaep^at the leu rules for the use of the capital letters, 


^opy the following extracts, inserting as m^y be r©* 
quired, capitr.l letters, punctuation points, and the otner 
marks used in writing. 

Ljahs. aristides among the athenitns' and eg>ai»inonda8 among 
the tfcebans arc said to have been sucL lovers of truth ihat they 
never told a lie even in joke, atttleus likewise .with whom c.cerQ 
was v^y intimate neither told a lie Mmaelf nor cauld bear 1t*n oth^ 
i hateihat man achille^ used to say as much as i do tbe gates ol' 
plutowhG Bays one thing and thinks another. Aristotle bears his 
testiujony as follows liars are not believed a^en when to^ Bpe«fcl£ 
ibe truth. Sincerity i. one of the most important yivine^ihU »W 

can possess. , . ^# i ,,. -,-i_ 

2, The AFFrcTiONATE DoLPni.N. duri-^ t««r«i2nor i.^ .«» r 


augustus A dolphin formed an attachment to tho son of a poor maK 
who used to feed him with bits of bread, every day the dolphin 
when called by the boy swam to the surface of the water and after 
having received his usual meal carried the boy €n his back from 
baise to a school in puteoli and brought him back in the same man- 
ner The boy alter a time died and the dolphin coining to the usual 
place and missing his kind master is said to have died of grief 


The student now, having been carried through punctuation, should 
be required to punctuate every sentence as it written : thus he will 
readily learn to use all the points as he progresses with tho art of 
composition. By faithfully pointing out his mistakes, and referring 
him lo the rule violated, the pupil will soon become as /familiar with 
punctuation as with the alphabet. 

. Whilfe the student is writing the following exercises, he would 
do well to review the first Xwcnty-four chapters ; and also the-elev.ea 
chajvters on Punctuation. 

• • 






I. When do the trees begin to put on their bright, warm 
colors t 

2. Does the first frost change them much ? 

8. How do the woods appear after the first frost ? 

' 4. How after the second or third ? 

5, On the hills, and in the valleys, and by the roadside, 
what is seen ? 

6. What are the different colors, in this bright array ? 

T, What tree, or shrub, or vine puts* on the most bril- 
liant t-ttire ? 

8. What color does the maple choose ? 

9. What, the oak ? 
10. What, the chcsnut ? 

II. What trees retsuin their green dress^? 


wnat mxm iv coMPo§mov. 

12« Are not these brilliant colors often seen in beautiful 

18. How does a group of trees appear, in wflich aTl tribes© 
colors are mingled ? 

14. What change pj^sses over these bright leaves? 

15. What does the November wind do with them ? 

16. Wh^e do they all at last lie ? 

17. What trees aione^ retain their foliage, to shield theso 
in winter ? 



You can describe how the first breath of frost is seen i© 
the changing colors of the leaves, and how these brilliant 
hues gradually spread over the hill-sides and fill the val- 
leys ; and also the difi'erent colors assumed by the difierentf 
trees. You will find, by observing them, that these are 
not entirely accidental* but that each tree, from year to 
year, wears nearly the same autumn dress. The maple 
assumes the greatest variety of colors, while the oak and 
chesnut are more uniform, and present only difierent hues 
of the sairfe color. Yon can describe the effeet of these 
colors contrasted with one another in a group of t-oes— ' 
from the dark, unchanging evergreen, to the gayest ma-^ 
pie — and all the intervening shides of the other trees,. 
and the effect of sunlight upon these autumn colors. 

In studying the wondrous changes wrought by touches 
of light upon this autumn scenery, a new world of pleas' 

. ... iA WM..a'OSlTI0N. 

ure will be opened to you, and you will be furnished with 
abundant material for description. 

You can mention the gradual fading of these bright 
leaves, till they lie scattered by November winds upon 
the ground ; then the sombre, desolate appearance of the 
forests, as they stand waiting for the winter snow. 



1. Are there not many kinds of moss ? 

2. What kinds are found upon fences, old trees, and 
roofs of houses ? 

3. Are not the most beautiful moss found in the woods ? 

4. What kind do you like best ? 

5. How does it grow ? 

6. Do you not often find many kinds growing together ? 

7. Do they not then make a beautiful carpet ? 

8. What kind of berries creep over this carpet ? 

9. What flowers blossom upon it ? 

10. What trees wave over it ? 

11. What lights and shadows dance upon it ? 

12. What little birds hop over it ? 

13. What little forest animals dine upon it ? 

14. What nuts do they find hiding away in it ? 

I y6 >..-ii" uuij.. ly ocnMi'osrriux. 

15. Ifl it not often spread out by the sifle of a brook or 
spring ? 

16. Is it not then the most delightful retreat in a "warm 
summer day ? 


You have seen, probably, many kinds of moss, creeping 
over rooks and stones, hanging from fences, and growing 
upon the roofs of old houses, and upon old trees. You 
can dwell upon this fondness of moss for old things, and 
speak of the beautiful effect it gives to every thing it 
.clings to. You can describe the various kinds you remem- 
ber, particularly those which groW in the woods, and 
which form such a beautiful carpet by the side of a brook 
•or spring. Nothing can be more beautiful than this, when 
it is fresh and green, interlaced with running vines, and 
dotted with wild flowers and bright scarlet berries. No 
wonder that the little birds like to . hop round upon it, or 
if the squirrel chooses it for a dining-room ; all this you 
describe \i\ your own words, and make as pretty a picture 
of it as you can. 

You should descril'C any given kind of moss, as you 
would do if you wanted some for a particular purpose, 
and were sending for it by a person who had never seen 
any. In such a case you would endoavor to distinguish 
it from all ether kinds, in such a way that he would be 
sure to bring you the right kind of moss. This would be 
a very good test by which to try your descriptions. You 
can speak, too, of the ornamental uses of. moss, if you 
know of any.. 




1. Are not these flowers to Be fourtd from early in the 
spring till late in autumn ? 

2. Are they not most beauiiful in spring ? 

3. Is it not delightful, after the tedious cold and snow, 
to see the liverworts, and the anemones, the blue violets, 
and trailing arbutus and columbines blossom one by one ? 

4. What kind of flower is ihelivcrivort, and where does 
it grow ? 

5. The anemone ? 

6. The columbine ? 

7. The trailing arbutus or Mayflower ? 

8. The honei/sucJde, too, w*hat kind of a flower is it, and 
'where does it grow ? 

9. Later in the summer, what comes ? 

10. Are not the laurel bushes covered with their magtiifi- 
cent blossoms;? 

11. What color are they, and how do they grow ? 

12. What kind of flower is the wild geranium ? 

13. The cardinal flower ? 

14. What about the golden-rod f 

15. The fringed gentian, too, is it not one of the 'last 
flowers before frost ? * 

IG. When do these beautiful suramoj visitants fiijaJly dis- 
appear ? 



You can mention by name the variolis flowers, as they 
appear from early spring till late in the autumn, and the 
reasons why spring flowers seem the sweetest. These you 
may describe, one by one, as you remember them, men- 
tioning the time of their appearance, and the places where 
they are found ; then in the same way the flowers of sum- 
mer and of autumn, ending with those which disappear on 
the arrival of frost. 

In speaking of these various flowers, you should endeav- 
or to use descriptive terms which express the most striking 
quality of the flower ; this may be color^ as in the cardinal 
flower or golden-rod ; or fragrance, as in the Mayflower ; 
or profusion of blossoms, as in the laurel ; or it may be 
the manner in which it grows; — in clusters, or otherwise. 
To seize upon this quality and express it, may often re- 
quire careful study ; but in no other way can excellence 
in description be attained. 

Very few of these beautiful wild-flowers have, as they 
all ought to have, beautiful names. If you please, you 
can exercise your fancy in suggesting new names. for the 
flowers whoso old ones you do not like. Liverworts, for 
instance, you might call ** Spring's blue eyes," or " May's 
blue eyes," or eimply "blue eyes,", or you can sugg^s^ 
anv other numc wliich may occur to you. 




1. What is the rose sometimes called ? 

2. Why is it called " Queen of Flowers ? 

#3. Does it not grow in greater profusion and variety 
than any other flower ? . 

4. Is it not more fragrant than any other ? 

5. Is it not found in every region where flowers grow ? 

6. HoTT tnany varieties have you ever seen ? 

7. Whieh do you think most beautiful ? 

8. How many kinds of white roses ? 

9. How many of pink and red roses ? 

10. Are there yellow roses ? 

11. Are there not many kifids of climbing roses ? 

12. Which is the most beautiful of these ? 

13. What kind of a flower is the wild rose ? 

14. Is not the " sweet-brier " a species of rose? 

15. How does this grow ? 

16. In what countries are roses most beautiful and abun- 
dant ? • 

17. Are they not more fragrant, also, in southern regionf? ? 

18. What delicious perfume is obtained from them ? 

19. Why is this very highly esteemed ? 

20^ FIRST LOOK 15 tOMVOtilTlO'J. 

TO ThE P U P IL.. 

Ercrj one has seen more than one kind of re so ; for'' 
there is no' flower of which tkore are so many varieties a§ 
this. You may give the reasons why it is called *' Queen 
of Flowers," and also name and describe the various kinds 
you have seen, specJving particularly of the differences of 
color and fragrance in these, and giving the reasons for 
their names. 

You must not forget the moss-rose, and the beautiful 
variety of climbing roses. You can speak of the luxuri- 
ant growth of these latter, the pxofusioD of their blos- 
soms, and the appearance of a house or porch covered by 
one in full blossom. The " wild rose," too, and especially 
the "sweet-brier,'* you may describe, and compare them 
with the garden rose. 

In describing any given rose, you should endeavor to 
apply the rule given in the preceding instructions, and 
speak of those qualities in col©r, size, fragrance, or man- 
ner of growth, or whatever it may be, by which it is dis- 
tini^uished from other roses. 

You can mention, also, the superior size and fragrance 
of the roses of southern regions, and the kind of perfume 
obtained from them* 



1. Are not these Blossoms among the loveliest obj i- 
in th^ world ? 

2- Do they not grow in beautiful places? 


3. How does a kke or po?wi look when covered with 
•them ? 

4, What color is the flower, and what kind of a centre 
'ihas it ? ' 

5. Do not these blossoms appear to float upon the ^v!lter ? 

6, What kind of leaves are they surrounded by ? 
7* Where are the roots of the plant ? 

8. How are the blossoms and leaves connected with tho' 
root ? * • 

9. Is not this stem very long and flexible ? 

10. At night, does this, flower close up ? 

11. How does it appear then ? 

12. How are these flowers gathered ? 

18. Is it not delightful to go in a boat to gather them ? 

14. How can the long stems bo secured? 

15. In reaching over for them, must one not be careful 
about upsetting the boat ? 

16. Is not a fresh bunch of these lilies a splendid bouquet V 

17. Have they, not a fresh, delicious fragrance ? 


S U K J K C T NO. n 

No one can see these beautiful flowers floating upon the 
wiitci, \vithout a feeling of delight sind admiration. You 
can describe tlie nrsrearanc^ of a, l-il:" r** -o'^.^'i ^-v---.. 


with them ; the freshness and purity of the white bios- 
eoms ; the manner in wliich they rest upon the ^vater ;. 
the color of the outside petals, and the Appearance • 
of the flower when closed : the pointed green buds ; the 
shape and texture of the leaves, and the peculiarly flat 
manner in which they lie upon the water : also, tl^e kind 
of stem which connects- the flowers and leavea with the 
roots of the plant. 

You can describe the life of these flowers in the lovely 
places which are their favorite haunts ; the banks of the * 
ponds and streams in which they grow j the shadows and 
breezes which play over them ; the little fishes which dart 
about among them, under the shelter of their broad flat 
leaves and the little bays or coves which they cover with 
iheir blossoms. 

You can speak, too, of the way in which these flowers 
are gathered ; how they must be pulled in order to secure 
long stems ; the danger, in reaching too far, of upsetting 
the boat ; the pleasure of drawing in the lilies, one after 
another ; the beauty, of afresh buoquet of them ; and their 
delicious fragrance. 



\. Is nof this always the delight of all Bohools ? 

2. At what hour does it generally come ? • 

. T), Is not tho last half hour before recess a time ot 
anxious "wiitching ? 

6. Whea tho ])f.(ll at last rings, what happens i^ 


6. Is it not a scene of confusion ? 

7. If it is summer, what does every one do 2 

8. How is your school-room situated ? 

9. What kind of a play-ground have you ? 

10. What games do you play in it ? ^ 

11. In winter, how is the recess spent ? 

12. What do older pupils do ? 

13. What do the younger ones do ? 

14. W hat games are then most popular ? 

15u Does not recess appear to fly by very quicMy ? 

16. What happens when the bell rings for study-hours 
again ? 

17. In a few minutes, is not every thing changed ? 

18. What is every one doing ? 


This is a subject upon which every one <5an write with- 
out difficulty ; for recess is the delight of every pupil. 
You cai^ describe the impatience with which it is looked 
forward to by all ; how slowly the minutes seem to go by, 
before the welcome sound of the bell for 'recess ; then the 
scene which follows : if summer, the rush which is made 
out of doors, and the various amusements entered into by 
different groups,. or by the whole school together. You 
can describe the situation of your school-room, and the 


pleasant plicos around it, whlcli arc tlio resort of tlie 
pupils at this time. If there are aivy trees near it, you ' 
can ;r\yct a description of these, and of the scenes which 
.take place under them. If there is a brook, describe 
tliat,*and the sports connectT^d with it ; or, if you have only 
a play-ground, the groups which cover it, and the games 
which are^ played upon it: then, as the cold weather comes 
on, the changes which take )lace in the sports entered in- 
to : tlie various in-djor games which are introduced. . You 
can mention the mosli popular ones, and describe the man- 
ner in which they are played. You can speak, too, of 
the swiftness with which the moments of recess fly by ; 
the ringing of t!ie bell for 'study-hours to recommence: 
and the change which thc:^» takes place in the appearance 
of the sc;hool. 

J] LIN I) il/yl^Y'/7 nUFF. 

1. Is not this one of trie most cxcltin<x ^ramcs that can 
be phiyod ? 

ti. Is any one too old, or too young to play it ? 

o. Wha" is the first step to be taken in phiying? 

d. Ilov.- is the person to be blindfolded .selected^ 

o. Must not the blindfcd ling be done fairly ? 

• 0. IIow do the others satisfy themselves about tliis ? 

7. "What then takes place ? 

b'. Wliat is the objootion of th(> person blindfolded? 


0. What is the object of the others ? * 

10. Is it not very difficult to catch any one who is 
fairly blindfolded? 

11. Is it not necessary to move about cautiously ? 

12. What is the dan^xer ? 

18- Docs not the blindfolded person sometimes become 
quite bewildered ? 

14. If he succeeds in catching any one, what iollows? 

15. If he does not succeed, and gives up, how does A^ 
game proceed ? iPf 

IG. Why is it almost impossible to play this game out of 
doors ? " 



SUBJECT !^0. 7. 

This game is a great favorite with every one, especially 
on Thanksgiving, or similar occasions. You may describe 
the zeal with which it is entered into at such times; the 
curious string of words with which the one to be blind- 
folded is chosen, and the moaning of these words, if you 
can suggest any. You may describe, also, the various 
ways which are tried to prove that the blindfolding has 
been fairly done: then, when this point has been ascer- 
tained, the general running and dodging, and shouting 
and screaming which takes place : the cautious groping 
of the blindfolded person, and the bewildered manner in 
which he funs about ; the devices of the others to confuse 


him, and to get out of the way when he approaches them r 
also what takes place when he succeeds in catching one ; 
the struggles of the person caught to get free ; the en- 
deavors of the catcher to guess whom he has caught, and 
if he is successful in this, the manner in which the game 

You can mention the antiquity, of this game, and give 
an account of its origion, if you can learn anything about 
it. You can speak, also, of the reasons why it is an es- 
pecial favorite with children. 





1. Was the Pic-nic much talked of beforehand.? 

2. What was the place fixed upon for it ? 

3. What kind of a place was it said to be ? 
4; What was the time fixed upon for going ? 

5. What preparations were made ? 

6. What were the baskets filled with ? , • 

7. When the day came, was it clear or doubtful weather ? 

8. Did you ride or walk ? 

9. Was the road a pleasant one ? 

10. At what time did you arrive at the Pic-nic gro'und?' 

11. How was it situated ? 

12. What took place upon arriving ? 

13. What preparations were made for the dinner'.?. 


14. How was the table arranged ? 

15. Was not the dinner scene a merry one ? 

16. What followed after dinner ? 

17. How late in the afternoon did you stay ? 

18. Was the ride home a pleasant one ? * 

19. Was there a brilliant sunset to be seen ? 

20. What changes did it pass through ? 



Very few IJjc-nics are got up and carried through with- 
out a great deal of talking and planning ; sometimes the 
plan is proposed several weeks before it is carried into 



You can mention how long beforehand the Pic-nic you 
describe was talked about; the discussions with respect to 
the preparations ; the packing of the baskets ; the doubts, 
hopes, and fears with regard to the weather ; the arrival 
of the day ; the assembling of the party ; and the man- 
ner in which you rode or walked. You can describe, 
also^ your adventures by the way, or any amusing circum- 
stance which may have happened ; the dispersing of the 
painty in various groups on arrival at the Pic-nic ground ; 
the search for a pleasant dining-room ; the different places 
proposed ; the one finally decided upon ; its advantages 
over the other places ; the scene which ensued ; the un- 
packing of the baskets ; the arrangement of the table ; 


anfUho various preparations for the dinner : then the as- 
sembling of the part/ at dinner, and how the afternoon 
>va3 spent. You can give a description, also, of the ride 
home, and of a beautiful sunset seen upon the way. 



. 1. Under what circumstances was the- ride taken ? 

2. Who were your companions ? 

3. Was the sleighing fine ? 

4. What kind of a day was it ? ^ 

5. AVhat precautions did you take against the cold ? 

6. What kind of a sleigh was it ? 

7. Did you fly along rapidly ? ^ , ' 

8. What road did you take ? 

9. Was there much snow to be seen ? 

10. How did the mountains and hills appear ? 

11. The trees and bushes ? 

12. The ponds and streams? 

13. How would these have appeared if it had been summer? 

14. Was it not exciting to feel yourself going along so fast? 

15. Did you meet many sleighs ? 

IG. Did not fingers and toes begin to freeze at last ? 


17. In spite of the cold, however, did you not enjoy tho 
ride ? 

18. Was it not pleasant to get baqk again by the warm 
-fire at home ? 


In describing a sleigh-ride, you can. speak of the exhil- 
arating eifect of the bracing air ; the clear blue sky ; the 
bright sun ; tbe swiftness of the motion, and the sound of 
the sleigh-bells. You can contrast, also, the scenery 
which you saw, with the same in its summer dress ; the 
bleakness of the mountains and hills f the clear, distinct 
outlines, so different from the soft warm haze of summer : 
then tho trees, with their thousand leafless twigs, with ' 
their appearance in summer ; the ponds and streams, stiff 
in their icy covering, with their summer life and beauty. 

By calling up vividly before your mind the landscape 
as it is in summer, you will be better able to describe the 
changes wrought by Winter, with his frost and snow, in 
every part of it, for you will feel more keenly what he 
has taken from it, — from the fields, from the brooks, from 
the trees, the hills, tlie skies, and the air. 

You can describe, also, the beauties of a winter land- 
scape ; the pure white enow; the sparkling of ice in the 
sunbeams ; the evergreens loaded with snow, and the deep 
blue sky ab(^ve it all ; also the gradual freezing up of all 
idesLS, and the pleasure ef being again by the warm fireside. 



1. What wag the arrival of tho Menagerie preceded by ? 

2. What did the handbills announce ? 

3. Did it not awaken a great deal of expectation and 
curiosity ? 

4. Was not the entrance of the Menagorie a time of 
great excitement ? 

5. Did not everybody turn out to witness it f 
G, What headed the procession ? * 

7. What were the musicians seated in ? 

8. What followed ? 

9. What did these cages contain ?' • 

10. In what kind of a place was the Menagerie exhibited ? 

11. How were t^e cages arranged in this tout ? 

12. Was there not a great erowd in attendance ? 
13J What animals interested you most ? 

14. Did the keeper enter the lion's cage t 

15. How did he manage it, ? 

16. V/hat performances took place wi:h tl^iso- ixwnkeys 't 

17. What witji the elephants ? 

18. Was not the exhibition fatiguing? 

19. Were you not glad wUcn it was, over-'? 



tou can describe the handbills or advertisements which 
^nerally precede the arrival of a menagerie in a place ; 
th€ wonderful attractions they always oifer, and the ex- 
citement which this creates among tho children : then the 
triumphal entry of the caravan on the day appointe- ; 
the music ; the magnificence of the musician's car ; the 
trappings of the horses and the elephants ; the singular 
effect produced by those of tho elephants ; the number of 
wagons or cages which follow, and the crowd which this 
sight attracts : then the opening of the exhibition ;the va- 
rious animals and tkeir performances, particularly the 
olephant; the manner in wnich he eats an apple, or 
any thing else which is given him. You can describe the 
character of the elephant, and relate any anecdotes you 
may have read in illustration of any of his traits. You 
can speak, also, of the habits of this animal in his wild 
state; of the countries in which he is found; what ho 
lives upon ; the size to which he sometimes grows; and 
the manner in which he is caught and tamed. You can 
mention, also, the animals with which you were most 
pleased, and describe them; also, the wonderful feats of 
the mookeys, ajad the way the keeper managed the lion 
when he entered the cage, or any thing else which inter- 




1. 'Arc there not many kinds cf Fairs ? 

2. For what different purposes are they held ? \ 

3. What is the object of a Horticultural Fair t ^ 

4. What does the display consist of then ? 

5. What is the object of an Agricultural Fair ? 

6. "^Yhat takes place then ? 

7. Are not Fairs often held for the DurDosc of raising; 
money ? 

8. What docs the exhibition generally consist. c<£? 

9. How is it conducted ? 

10. Did yau ever attend such a Fair ? . 

11. Did you over assist in getting up one ? 

12. How was the room decorated ? 

• 13. How were the tables arranged ? 

14. What kind of articles were for sale upon ihavtx 't 

15. By wh-om were these sold ? 

16. Was there a post-office in the Fair ? 

17. How was this condueted ? v 

18. AYere there many visitors ' 

li>. Were most of 'the articles- sold f 

20. How long did the Fair last I 

21. How did it end? ' 


TO TEE rrpii: 
s u B J E c T :n . 1 1 . 

You can speak of the different objects for which Fairs 
arc held, and mention those which are most common, and 
%vhat each of these is called. You can describe the dis- 
play of flowers, fruits, and vegetables, at a Horticultural 
Fair, and the' manner in which this is generally conducted; 
also, an Agricultural Fair, in which a cattle snow is the 
most prominent feature : both these afford great scop for 
description, particularly the latter, in the variety of ani- 
mals exhibited, and the various ways in which superiority 
among them is tested. If you prefer to describe this kind 
of fair,'you can give an account of the preparations nade 
for it by the farmers for weeks beforehand. You cnn des- 
cribe, also, the place where the exhibition was held then 
the morning of the fair ; the trains of animals ; ban Is of 
m«sic and crowds of wagons ; the different kinds of noises ; 
then the various parts of the exhibition, and the dis ribu- 
tion of prizes. 

Fairs are also often hold, in order to raise mono / for 
benevolent purposes. You can speak of the manr or in 
which these are generally got up; how tho various ait idea 
to be sold are furnished; tho decorations of the r( oms ; 
the arrangement of the different tables ; the comj»any 
present, &c. '.also, who presided at the tables; how long 
the Fair continued ;and the amount raise 1 bv the sal j of 
tlie articles. ■• 



1. What is Thanksgiving ? 

2. Bv whom was this festival first celebrated ? 

3. Under what circumstances ? 

4. Was it not at first celebrated only in New England ? 

5. Is it not now observed by many other States ? 

6. How long beforehand do children begin to count the 
days and weeks to Thanksgiving ? 

7. What preparations sre made for it in the kitchen ? 

8. yow many kinds of pics and puddings ? 

9. What kind of pie figures most prominently ? 

10. What does the farmer bring to market ? 

11. What is the principal thing to be secured ? 

12. Are the poor forgotten in these preparations ? 

13. How is the morning of Thanksgiving day occupied t 

14. After church what takes place ? 
16. How does the table look ? 

16. How does the dinner go off ? 

17. How are the afternoon and evening spent ? 

18. Is not this a great day for family meetings ? 

19. Does not every one try to be at home then ? 

20. Ought not this festival always to be observed? 


SUBJECT NO. 12. - 

Every one knows that Thanksgiving is a religious festi- 
val of rejoicing and giving thanks. In writing upon this 
subject, you may mention the circumstances in which it 
originated, and the manner of its first observance. You 
can describe, also, the present mode of observing the day; 
the pleasure with which it is anticipated by every one ; 
the divei^s kinds of pics and puddings concocted for the 
occasion ; the dreadful slaughter of turkeys, geese, and 
chickens — the articles which the farmer brings to market, 
the fat turkey which every one looks out for : then the 
manner in which Thanksgiving day is spent ; the various 
games which occupy the afternoon and evening. You 
can descjribe & family party gathered on Thanksgiving 
evening ; the difierent ages of the persons who are brought 
together, and who all siare alike in these games. You can 
speak of some one occasion of this kind which you may 
have enjoyed very much, and give an account of the amuse- 
ments entered into,' and all the pleasant things which oc- 
curred. You can speak, also, of the manner in which the 
poor are remembered on this occasion ; also of the pleas- 
ant family gatherings which always takes place at this time, 
and of the various beneficial efiects resulting from the 
gbservance of this festival. 


1. What is the origin of this celebration ? 

2. What is the date of the event it commemorates ? 

'i. Is it a religious festival, like Thanksgiving V 


4, Is it observed all over the country ? 
6. What preparations are made for it ? 

6. Do not boys begin weeks beforehand to save their 
money for it ? 

7. What do they spend it in ? 

8. How does the day open ? 

9. How many cannons are fired ? 

10. What is this followed by ? 

11. What sounds are heard incessantly ? 

12. Are there not great crowds to be seen everywhere ? 

13. What is seen at every corner ? 

14. What is sold at these stalls ? 

15. Is there not a great deal of molasses candy sold by 
small boys ? 

16. How do they carry it about ? 

17. How does the day end ? 

18. What sometimes take place in the evening ? 

19. Does not this day commemorate the greatest event 
in history ? 

20. Ought not its observance to be perpetuated ? 

• SUBJECT NO. 13. 

The mention of this subject brings up to every one 
memories of scenes which are repeated on every return of 
the day ; of cannons, soldiers, parades, drunken men- 


fighting men, crowds of men, women and children, horses 
and carriages, fire- crackers incessantly sounding, boys 
with molasses candy, stalls of apples and gingerbread : 
from early morning, when one is wakened by the roar of 
the -cannjons, till late at night, after the last cracker has 
been fired and the last skyrocket sent up, there is no peace 
for eyes or ears. All these various sights and sounds you 
'may describe in any order you please ; or you may give an 
account of.a Fourth of July which was celebrated in some 
particular manner — by a pic-nic, .or 'some kind of proces- 
sion; and describe the arrangements for the occasion ; the 
manner in which it passed ofi*; the speeches which were 
made, &c. 

You may precede your description of the celebration 
of this day, if you choose, with a brief history of the War 
of the Revolution, the success of our struggles, the Decla- 
ration of Independence, and the manner in v/hich this. was 
drawn up and signed. You will find all these particulars 
in any history of the United States. 


1, Is this an American festival, like FcTurth of July or 
Thanksgiving ? 

2. How did it originate ? 

o. What did it first commemorate ? 

4. How is it observed in this country? . 

5. What do children do the night before Christmas? 
C. What do they expect to find in the morning ? 

7. Who are they told fillerl their stockings ? 


8. What sort of a person is Santa-Claus said to be. ? 

9. How is he dressed? 

10. llo\Y does he get about ? 

11. What does h^ carry in his sleigh ? 

■ 12. How does he enter the house in the night ? 

13. What does he leave in naughty children's stockings ? 

14. What takes place on Christmas morning ? 

15. Are the children not up before daylight ? 

16. What greetings are iieard all over the house? 

17. Does not Santa-Claus sometimes get up a Cliristmas 
tree ? 

18. How does he manage this ? 

19. Is not this day observed religiously by many ? 

20. How are the churches decorated for the occasion ? 

21. Do they not present a beautiful appearance ? 


This festival is not, like ThanksGjivinf]: and -Fourth of 
July, of American origin, but it has been celebrated for 
many hundred years as the anniversary of the most im- 
portant event in the world's history — the birth of Christ — 
and because this event brought joy to the. world, it was 
celebrated as a day of rejoicing ; at first religiously, and 
it is so observed by many persons at this day : many 
churches are beautifully decorated with evergreens, and 
opened for religious services. 


With children, ho^^ever, this has becomo a i^reat d:\y 
for receiving giftfe ; they find their stockings full of all 
sorts of good things on Christmas morning, and they are 
told that a certain Santa-Claus, whose name was originally 
St. Nicholas, a little old man, vjueerly dressed in furs, 
and driving a sleigh drawn by six little reindeer, enters 
the house by coming down the ohimney, and- fills their 

Almost every one has some fancy about this Santa- 
Claus, and his visits. You can give a description of him 
as you" imagine him to be ; of all the particulars of his 
dress ; of the presents he carries ; of the* size and shape 
of his sleigh, and the trappings of th6 reindeer ; or any 
impression you may have concerning him. You can speak 
also, of the manner in which you are accustomed to ob- 
serve this day. 




1. What is the highest mountain or rock you have ever 

visited ? ' 

2 Where is it? 

3. What is its name, and why was it so naijied ? 

4. How hisrh is it ? 

5. How high is its shape ? 

6. Is it covered with trees, or is it bare rock ? 


7. Is it connected with other hills, or docs it stand 
alone ? 

8. What is the appearance of the range to which it be- 

9. Is the ascent to the mountain difficult ? 

10. Is the view from the top fine ? 

11. At what season did you see it ? 

12. At what time in the day ? 

13. Was the atmosphere clear or hazy ? 

14. What lay at the foot of the mountain — a river or 
meadows ? 

15. Beyond, what Was seen — villages, lakes, or a town ? 

16. What bounded the view in the horizon ? 

17. How does this view compare with others you have 
seen ? ^ 


S U B J E C T .N . 1 . 

You may describe some mountain you haVe visited or 
seen, placing its name at the head of your composition as 
your subject ; or, better still, you may visit some eleva- 
tion in your vicinity from which a fine prospect may be 
seen, and answer these questions from the point of view 
itself. , 

If you describe things as you actually see them before 
you, your description will be life-lihe — that is, it will por- 
tray objects as they really arc, at a given time ; but if 
you trust to your memory, you will be apt to use only 


general terms, which are not capable of conveying defi- 
nite images to the mind. 

Kemember that, in all descriptions of nature, it is not 
so much the objects themselves about which you are to con- 
cern .yourself, as these objects seen under some particular 
ligJit— for what is true of them at one time may be false at 
another ; the spire of a church, for instance,under a cloudy 
sky, is one uniform color, whatever it may be ; while, in 
the rays of the setting or the rising sun, one half will be 
in dazzling light, and the other half in deep shadow, and 
so all objects are being continually transformed by chang- 
ing lights and shadows. 


1. Is there a brook near where you live ? 

2. Does it run fast or slow ? 

3. Is its bed stony or clear ? 

4. Is its bed noisy or still ? 

5. Does it wind about much ? 

6. Does it pass through woods and meadows' 

7. What kind of trees shade it in the woods ? 

8. What grows on its banks ? 

9. What fringes its side in,the meadows? 

10. What kind of bushes mark its course? 

11. Are there any fishes in. the brook? 


12. What kind are they ? 
• 13. Did you ever catch ahy ? 
' 14. How did y/)U manage this ? 

15. Did you ever launch any little boats in it ? 

16. What became of them ? 

17. Did you ever tumble in the brook ? 

18. How did it happen ? • 

19. Did you ever wade about in the brook ? 

20. Is it not pleasant to do this in a warm summer day. 


You may put the name of th€ brook you describe at the 
head of your composition, as your subject; or, if it has 
no name, you can invent one for it, which will have an 
af^reeable souud and at the same time be descriptive af 
somo of its qualities — such as " Windins; Brook," " Stony 
Brook," or ''Merry Brook," or wliatever it may be; also, 
in your descriptions of tke scenes through w'hich it passes, 
remember to individualize as much aS possible : that is, 
instead of using general terms, such as "flower "bush," 
"tree," which canveys only general ideas to the mind, 
V me nnzncZmt^^ta? flower, bush, or tree, which calls up 
; >.^e particular image. It is this individualizing which 
gives vividness to a description. For. example, the par- 
ticular terms, " blue meadow-lily," " golden buttercup," 
"red barberry bush," " dark hemlock," each convey a 



distinct image to the mind, and give it a peculiar feeling 
of pleasure, which it does not receive from the general 
teriifs "flower," '^bush," "tree." 

Remember, also,' that an object must be described, not 
only by some striking quality, but also by someparticu- 
lar aspect: thus, if you were describing a barberry-bush, 
in blossom, you would not speat of it as red ; and so with 
all other objects. 



1. Did you over visit any waterfall ? 

2. Where was it .^ ' 

3. What was it called ? 

4. Why was it so called ? 

5. IJjider what circumstances did you visit it? 

6. Was the approach to the fall easy or difficult ? 

7. Was it through a ravine? 

8. What kind of a ravine was it ? 

9. Was. the bed of the brook rocky ? 

10. Did you hear the fall before you saw it ? 

11. Did yoii first see it from above or below? 

12. What was the scenery around the fall ? 

18. Over what kind of rocks did the watjr: fall ? 
14. How high was the fall ? . • 

12G pirst book in composition. 

15. T)id it fall in one sheet, or was it broken up ? 

16. How was it broken up ? 

17. What was the so.und of the falling water ? 

18. How did the stream below appeal ? 

19. Were there any falls below this one ? 

20. What was the course of the stream ? 

^1. Did it come out into quiet meadows at last ? 


Under this subject you can describe a visit to some 
waterfall, taking its name as the subject of your composi- 

The approach to a waterfall is almost always wild and 
picturesque, and is therefore a good subject for description. 
By the term *"' picturesque^'' is meant ''^ that wJiich would 
he beautiful in a picture ;'' and in the turnings and wind- 
ings of a ravine there are often a succession of little views 
w^hich would make beautiful pictures if they were painted. 
This succession of picturesque views you should endeavor 
to bring before the mind m language. In order to do this, 
you should try to imagine in what way an artist would 
represent the scene you wish to describe — the lights, shad- 
ows, and colors he would use, and how he would arrange 
these ; and remember, that whatever can be represented 
in a picture^ can be expressed in language. 

You should have in your mind, not merely a general^ 
confused idea'of rocks, stones, running water, wild pla- 
ces, and a great deal of scrr^mhling to be done, but a die- 


tinct impression of each successive view in the approach 
to the fall, and finally of the fall itself, and describe each 
as if it were a picture bj itself. In this way you will 
succeed in conveying to the mind of another, the impress- 
ion which the visit to the fall made upon yourself. 


1. What is a spring ? 

2. Whore does water in springs come from ? 

3. What becomes of it when it flows out of the spring ? 

4. What do the brooks flow into ? 

5. What becomes of the rivers ? 

6. Did you ever see a sprifig? 

7. Where was it? 

8. Was it shaded by trees ? ' . 

9. Were there any flowers, or mosses, or ferns around it ? 

10. Did you drink from it*? 

11. Was the water pure and cold? . 
12. 'How deep was it ? 

13. What became of the water that floWed from it ? 

14. Is not a spring always a stopping place for children 
in their rambles ? 

15. How do they contrive to drink from it ? 

16. Is the water in all springs cold ? 


lY. What do you know about the famous Kot SpriDgs? 

18. How can they be accounted for ? 

19. What other kinds of springs are there ? 

S U B J E C T N . 4 . 

• Th© name of the spring you describe you can take for 
the subject of your composition : or, if it has no name, you 
should give it one which is descriptive of some of its qual- 
ities, or of something in its situation. 

In describing it you should bring together all. that is 
delightful about the spring, and in the scenery around it, 
so as to form an agreeable picture. You can speak of 'the 
manner in which it is kept £lled, and give an imaginary 
description of the sources, deep in the earth, from which 
the water wells up, or trickles down into its baain ; and 
then of its outflowing, and the beauty and verdure which 
gather around its borders. You should try to imagine 
that the spring itself has life, and/eeZs as you would, in 
its place ; and that the trees, mosses, ferns, and flowers 
which grow ^around it, have feeling also: this will give 
you a keener perception of all that is pleasant about the 
plac€3 in which they live. 

• You can describe, also, the scenes which take place 
around the spring ; the merry companies of children that 
stop by it's side ; their expedients for drinking from it ; 
the kind of cups they make out of leaves, and the suc- 
cess of their experiments, and any incident connected 
with these visits. ' • 



i. Was it in Bumm^ or in winter ? 

2. Was the moon just rising, or was it high in the heavens t 

3. Were there any clouds in the sky ?J 

4. Were they touched hy the moon's light ? 

5. Were there any^flying clouds to be seen ? 
6: How did this affect the light ? 

7. What were the most distant points seen ? 

8. How did the light strike upon them ? 

9. Nearer, what was seen ? 

10. Close at hand, what appeared? 

11. How would the same scene have looked in broad 
day-light ? 

12. Were not its common-place features invisible in the 
taoonlight ? 

13. Was not all that was fin0 seen in shadowy outlines T 
14j Were the colors of the landscape visible ? 

15. Was there any thing seen but silvery lights and dark 
shadows ? 

16. How were these distributed over the scene f 

17. What was the effect produced ? 

18. How did it compare with a sunset scene ? 


You may take any season you please for this description^ 

either summer, when the effect of moonlight streaming 

through the openings in the heavy foliage is so enchanting ; 

or winter, when the ground, covered with snow, reflects it 



with such brilliancy, and the moon and stars are so glo- 
riously beautiful. You should, however, describe, a real 
Bcene, and not an imaginary one ? 

The first thing to be noticed in descriptions of moon- 
light scenery is, absence of colot — the sun is the great 
painter of the world, the first touch of his rays upon a 
landscape brings out a multitude of ^lors, all fresh and 
glowing; but the moon is like an artist who uses only 
black crayons, nothing is seen in her landscapes but sil- 
very lights and shadows; these, however, she distiib- 
uets with wondrous effect over the scene. In your des- 
criptions, therefore, you should be guided by the great 
artist herself — the moon — and bring out in language the 
points which she touches with her rays, and describe also 
the sombre effect produced by those features of the sceno- 
over which she casts a dark drapery of shadows. 

You can speak of the effect upon the mind, of these 
deep shadows ; the vague terrors of the imagination wHich 
they inspire. You can compare, also, with respect to 
beauty, a moonlight with a sunset sr.ene. 



1. What kind of day was it ? 

2. In what month ? 

3. Were there any signs of a coming storm ? 

4. What was the first indication in the sky ? \ 
6. How did the clouds roll together ? 

6. Did it grow very dark ? 

7. Was there a sound of risin;:r wind ? 


8. "Was there distant thunder ? 

9. Were there flashes of lightning ? 

10. As the storm drew nearer, did these increase ? 

11. Did the wind begin to roar among the trees ? 

12. Did it toss their branches ? 

13. How did the rain beajin to fall ? 

14. Did it increase rapidly ? 

15. Did in fall in torrents ? 

16. Did it flood the roads ? 

17. Was any living creature to be seen ? 

18. How long did the storm last ? 

19. Did it clear away suddenly ? 

20. How did everything appear after the sform ? 

21. Was there a rainbow to be seen ? 



Under this subject you may first give a picture oi a 
drought which preceded the storm, and describe the feel- 
ing of the atmosphere and the appearance of the earth. 

You may mention individual plants and animals, and 
the manner in .which they were afi'ected by .the want of 
rain : then the gathering 6f the storm, the rumbling thun- 
der, the rising wind, flashes cf lightning, the rolling to- 
getherr of the clouds. 


You can describe the forms of the clouds, and the 
changes that took place in them till they overcast the 
heayens, and poured their deluge of .rain upon the earth, : 
also, the manner in which the wind twisted and tossed the , 
branches of the trees ; the terri-fic claps of thunder and 
flashes of lightning in the midst of the pouring rain : then, 
after the storm, the refreshed appearance of the plants 
you had noticed as drooping under the drought. Also, 
in describing the rainbow, you can speak of the extent of 
the arch, the breadth of its belt of colors, the order of 
their arrangement, its brilliancy, and its fading away. 

You can speak of the cause of this appearance in the 
heavens, and give the reasons wUy it does not follow every 
thunder-storm. You can also allude to. the promise which 
was once given in connection with the rainbow, and the 
occasion of that promise. 



1. Had the storm been long, in gathering ? 

2. What was the appearance of the sky ? 
8. How did the air feel ? 

.4. Was the ground hard and frozen ? 

5. Was the landscape drejiry ? 

6. How did the flakes begin to fall ? 

7. Did the storm increase ? 

8. Wa3 there any wind, or was it still ?. 

' FIRST B0(t6 1» COMPOSITION. \%t( 

9. Did the snow-flakes fill the air ? 

1§, How did every thing begin to appear — trees, fenceSy 
branches, twigs ? 

11. Were there any drifts ? 

12. Were any sleighs, or any people to be seen plunging 
through the snow ? 

13. How long did the storm continue ? 

14. Did it clear off bright and cold ? 

15. How did every thing look in the sunlight ? 

16. Was not every twig loaded ? 

17. How did the evergreens look ? ^ 

18. Did people begin to break paths in the snow ? 

19. Did the slcigh-bclls begin to be hoard? 

■'20. Did not every one rejoice that the storm was over ? 



Under this subject you wish first to convey to the mind 
an impression of the peculiar bleakness and chilliness 
which generally preced^ a long snow-storm. You can 
describe the various indications of the Coming snow, in 
the feeling of the air and the appearance of the sky ; the 
solid bank of snow- clouds in the horizon ; then the grad- 
ual manner in which the storm begins ; the silent, leisurely 
fall of the snow-flakes, in contrast of that of rain-drops ; 
the powdered appearance of the earth after the first 
sprinkling ; then the increase of the storm ; the thick flakes 


filling the air ; the increasing depth of the snow ; the ' 
white heaps to be seen everywhere ; the wind whirling and 
sweeping ov^r it, and roaring in the tops of the trees : 
then the bright clearing up ; the beauty of the white snow- 
drifts in the sunlight, and of the loaded trees — particular- 
ly the dark evergreens, in contrast with their white burden. 
Endeavor always to give the 'particular aspect of what- 
ever you wish to describe: thus, ^'the wind whirls — it 
sweeps the edge of the drifts," is more descriptive than 
*' the wind blows," because the former gives not only the 
fact^ but also the manner of the blowingj^ while tho latter 
ezpresses nothing but the fact. 




1, In what regions are these displays more brilliant ? 

a. In what part of the heavens do they always begin to 
appear ? 

3. Why are they called "Northern Lights?" 

4. What are they called by inhabitants of some north- 
ern regions ? 

5. Why do they give them tho name of *' Merry Dan- 
cers?" . • 

6. What was the most brilliant one you ever saw ? 

7. In what season did it occur ? 

8. At what time in the evening did you first see it ? 

9. Was the sky cloudless, or were there clouds ? 
JO* Was the moon visible ? 

• / 

FlKbT BOOK IN COMl'OSrflOJJ. ' 185 

11,, What was the first appearance of the Aurora? 

12. In what way did it increase ? 

13. Did it assume any color ? 

14. Were th^re waves and columns of light ? 

15. What was the appearance of these waves ? 

16. Did the streams of light shoot up rapidly ? 

17. Did they extend around the whole heavens'? 

18. Was the brilliancy variable ? 
19.' When was it greatest ? 

20. IIow long did the display continue ? r 

21. Is the cause of these appearenccs known ? 


The magnificent displays oi the Aurora Borealis, or 
Northern Lights, occur most frcvjuently in winter, though 
they sometimes appear with great splendor in the sum- 
mer season. No one has ever accounted for thoan satis- 
factorily; We know not whence they come, nor w*hither 
they go ; j\nd this mystery hanging over their sudden ap- 
pearance and disappearance, adds greatly to the feeling 
of awe and wonder wdth which we view their bright visi- 

You can expand this idea, or put it in another form, as 
an introduction to your composition, if you choose ; and 
then proceed with a description of the appearance of the 
sky before the Aurora began ; the clouds in the northern 


horizon ; the manner in which the streams of light shot * 
out of them : the "waves and columns of light which fol- 
lowed ; the rapid changes of motion and color in these ; 
tiie extent end brilliancy of the Aurora ; the time of its 
continuance, and its final disappearance. You should study 
to find' a variety of terms expressing rapidity of motion 
and brilliancy of color ; such as — darting, shooting, 
streaming, waving, glancing, kindling, flashing, luminous 
vivid, glowing ; and make a careful use of these in your 

In doing this, you will be much assisted by considering 
the hints given in tho preceding instructions. 



1. Was it in summer or winter ? 

2. From what point did you watch the sunrise ? 
ft. What were the distant features in the view ? 
; . What was nearer ? 

5. "^^'joat were close at hand? 

6. What kind of a light preceded the sunrise ? 

7. Did this continue brighter and brighter ? 

8. What sounds were heard ? 

9.* Were there any clouds in the cast ? 

10. What kind of clouds were they ? 

11. How did they indicate the approaching sunrise t 


12. IIow did they change, in shape and color ? 

13. What was the first appearance of the sun ? 

14. What was the first point touched by his light ? 

15. What was the efi'ect produced? 

16. Was there any dew, or frost, or mist seen in the 
light ? 

17. IIow did this look ? 

18. Were there any long shadows cast ? 

19. By what objects ? 

20. Did these grow shorter and shorter ? 

21. IIow long was it, before the sun was fairly risen? 


Tha best advice that can be given you in writing upon 
this subject, is to describe an actual scene — selecting 
some point which commands a pleasant view, and giving 
the changes as they took place under your own observa- 

You should mention the season in which the sunrise 
occurred, the kind of light which preceded the rising of 
the sun, and the appearance of tlio sky and clouds. 

You should also describe the various points in the land- 
scape, as it was spread out before you in this uniform gray 
light ; and then, the changes which took place in each of 
these points successively, under the magic touch of the 
sun's ray ; also, the morning mist, the dew-drops catching 
the light, the long shadows, the fresh air, the morning 




th.s . capable of being wroughtin a beautiful desTr ^io " 
Kemember, U :s ^ith description as with painting^I 

Ime of the landscape, but something also of the effect 

produced by Lghts, shadows and eolo'^rs, must be conveyed 

the mmd, otherwise the description will be wanting in 

completeness. ^ 


1. Under what circumstances did you observe the sun- . 

. 2. What was the'season 1 

3. What kind of a day— clear or hazy ? 

4. What was your point of view ? 

5. How high was the sun when you began to watch it. 
progress ? ^ 

6. Were there any clouds in the sky ? 

7. How did these change in shape and color ? 

8. What were the nearest features in the view ? 

9. Beyend these, wha|(^ were seen ? 

10. What were the most distant points ? 

^tiig s^nT '^'^ '''^' '^ '^"''' "^P^"^ ^^ "^'^ '^^y' ^f ^^^ set- 
12. Was there any haze over the landscape ? 


13. What was its appearance on the mogt distant hills ? 

14. Wli it on those next nearer ? 

15. How was it with the nearest ? 

16. Were there any deep shadows to- bo seen ? 

IT. What points were euccessively illuminated ? 

18. What gradual changes took place as the sun sunk 
lower ? 


You may take as your subject a summer sunset. This 
is a glorions theme for a description. It is a favorite with 
every artist who wishes to paint a beautifillt^picture, on ac- 
count of the brilliance of the sky, tt^iev^owing colors of 
the landscape, the strong contrasts of^.i-he lights and shad- 
ows, and the haze which fills the atmosphere, giving such 
a beautiful softness to every thing. 

In studying a scene of this kind for the purpose of dc* 
scribing it, you should observe the effect of this haze. On 
the most distant hills it may be alight, pearly tint, hardly 
to be distinguished from the sky j on those i^ext nearer, its 
color will be more decided ; and on, IjijQferent still ; 
while over the nearest objects, it assumes a great variety 
of beautiful hues. 

You should also notice the effect of strong light in chang- 
ing the appearance of objects. A liWle cluster of twigs, 
upon which the rays of the setting sun may strike, will 
look as if they had been dipped in gold ; and though you 
may know them as they really are, you must describe them 
as they api^ear. 

Great care must be taken in the selection of right de- 
scriptive terms, for this is as essential to a fine description, 
as is the proper choice of colors to a fine painting. 


Qjie subjects embraced in Division III. arc inexliausti*i' 
ble in their character, since by changing-the point of view 
in each, the subject itself is changed. 

The pupil will thus find it an excellent exercise, to take 
the same subject two or three times in succession, varying- 
his compositions according to the scene selected for de- 
scription. In the study of Nature he will find an ample^ 
variety of material. 

These exercises in description are of the highest itnpor-f 
tance, as laying the foundation of all freshness and vivid- 
ness of style. The pupil should be thoroughly trained in 
them before attempting any other branch of composition. 

. ,ir!ia^:iiLi!ilBiiiJf'iL'Jttiikf!%^ 

V 4 





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^'^Ms^i^^. ^f^^^^i^^M^^^'^^^t^. 










Deeigned for the t>se of Prcparatorj Schools. Tho snbject is made easy to the ^ 
pupil by the practice of easy auii progre^MVe Weaone, The Book can be used to '. ^ 

advantage ae eoon ae th« BtuC'mt can read well, and earlier than it is netessary to ^ 

commence English QramiDar. Grammar is rendered much e«^r to children, by ^ 
leapBing the Composition first. ■ ^ 


Rerised from Webber and adapted to Soatherii Scboolfl. Webster's Elementary, ^ 
ieavtog out all the Yankee phraset* and illaelonB, la still a very good speller tor ^ 

Southern children. V * ' $ 

Such revisions and improvements have been made, as were necessary to make '^ 

it fully Southern. , ' ^ 

ms gone through the second editioa witb great popularity and s^iecees. 




Isreatly needed everywhere, will not be ^^ajed much longer. . A complete Ge- ^ 

ography can not be taade until the,war la ihetuvi Ixyundary lines establidjed. ^ 


There is great difficulty in preparing a book of thla kto (" at present, on account ^ 
of the numerous ents needed Steady energy however, can overcame all IJieee 
things, and glv« to our children, aii tho booka necessary. 

'^' M 


For Sabbath Schools, for our soldiers, and for peopb generally, who are not wdl ^ 

versed In tha Bible. These Questions give a general knowledge of both C. I and W 

New Testameuti, without meddling with any particular doctrines. ^ 

Twenty-five per cent, off to wholesaio purchaserj^^^ , ^ 

The above Publications will be forwarded as faa! i« the orders can be filled, by ^ 

mall or Express, to all parte of the country. §| 

BRANSON, |t^RBAiff& Co., Pablishers, i^ 

niUsbl^iS'; Street, Raleigh, 1^. C.